Enoxaparin: What is it? How is it used? Precautions, Side Effects and Interactions

It is a medicine in the family of anticoagulants used to reduce or prevent the formation of blood clots.

Enoxaparin is recommended for cases of deep vein thrombosis. This condition can cause the formation of blood clots in the lungs that arise after some surgeries or in people who have been in bed for a long time due to a prolonged illness.

It can also be prescribed for people with certain heart conditions. However, people who suffer from active bleeding or have low levels of platelets in the blood can not ingest this medication as it would aggravate their condition.

An anticoagulant treatment with Enoxaparin is not recommended if the individual undergoes a lumbar puncture or receives spinal anesthesia because it can cause a severe blood clot around your spinal cord.

If the person treated with Enoxaparin is using other medicines that can affect the blood clotting. This type of blood clot can cause long-term or permanent paralysis.


This medicine can not be taken if:

  • Active or uncontrolled bleeding occurs.
  • There is a low platelet in the blood for specific antibodies while treating Enoxaparin.

This drug can cause the bleeding process to be faster if you have:


  • A hemorrhagic disorder
  • An infection in the heart.
  • Stomach or intestinal ulcer.
  • Recent surgical intervention in the spine, brain, and eyes.
  • An injury to the spinal cord.
  • He uses a spinal catheter or was recently used.
  • Other anticoagulant treatments such as warfarin and Coumadin, among others.

The use of Enoxaparin is not recommended when people suffer from:

  • Liver disease.
  • Hypertension without treatment.
  • Stomach ulcer.

It is unknown if this medicine affects babies during breastfeeding when the mother is in treatment or if it affects the fetus in the gestation process.

How is Enoxaparin used?

The medical doctor is the only one who should prescribe this medication. The patient must follow it to the letter to avoid Enoxaparin losing its effect or having side effects.

The most common treatment is administering it every day through an injection in different places until the treating doctor suspends its use when examining it and verifying that it does not need it anymore.

While Enoxaparin is used as a drug, blood and bowel movements must undergo frequent evaluations to analyze the effects of the drug on the body.

Side effects

This medicine may cause allergic reactions such as itching or burning the skin, hives, swollen lips, throat, face, and difficult breathing.

It can also cause:

  • There is unusual bleeding from the mouth, nose, vagina, rectum, or other mucus.
  • Red or purple spots on the skin without previous injuries in that body area.
  • Persistent dizziness without explanation.
  • Arrhythmia without presenting any diagnosed cardiac condition.
  • Lack of concentration in routine or new activities.
  • Stools with blood.
  • Vomiting that looks like coffee beans.
  • Severe headache or confusion
  • Problems expressing ideas clearly and difficulty seeing or focusing.

Common side effects may include:

  • Inflammation in the feet and hands.
  • Redness or swelling where the medicine was injected.
  • The following side effects can also occur anemia, hemorrhage, and fever.

Enoxaparin may cause other unwanted effects such as:

  • Bleeding of the gums.
  • Cough with excessive bleeding.
  • Difficulty in swallowing.
  • Increase in menstrual flow
  • Paralysis
  • Prolonged bleeding in small or large cuts.
  • Dark urine.
  • Collection of blood under the skin.
  • Convulsions
  • Low back pain
  • Back pain.
  • The vein of the neck dilated.
  • Problems with bowel function
  • Acne.
  • Thickening of bronchial secretions.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Unusual tiredness or weakness

Some side effects of Enoxaparin can occur and usually do not require medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medication.


The following medications can not be ingested while you are being treated with Enoxaparin since its use may cause side effects or excessive bleeding:

Abciximab, cilostazol, anagrelida, clopidogrel, dipiridamol, ticlopidina, tirofiban, eptifibatida, alteplasa, tenecteplasa, uroquinasa, reteplasa, apixabán, bivalirudina, dabigatrán, argatroban, desirudina, lepirudina, fondaparinux, rivaroxabán, heparina, tinzaparina, entre otros.