Systemic Arterial Hypertension: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment


Systemic hypertension is the elevation of blood pressure in the vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the body.

Commonly known simply as hypertension, high blood pressure negatively affects cardiovascular function and can compromise the health of the heart.

People diagnosed with this condition are usually prescribed medications and are advised to make changes in diet and lifestyle to lower their blood pressure.

Hypertension develops when cardiovascular blood circulation is impaired by arterial narrowing.

Restricted blood flow requires greater pressure within the heart to drive blood through its chambers.

Systemic hypertension is associated with the cardiovascular system and vessels that deliver freshly oxygenated blood throughout the body.

It is not uncommon for systemic arterial hypertension to remain undiagnosed for years, since many people remain asymptomatic, meaning they do not experience signs that something is wrong.

Most preliminary diagnoses are made after consistently high blood pressure readings over a period of time.

If systemic arterial hypertension is suspected, diagnostic tests, including an electrocardiogram, may be administered to further assess cardiovascular function and confirm a diagnosis.


The symptoms of systemic arterial hypertension are generally proportional to the severity of the condition, as blood pressure increases, the importance and intensity of the symptoms also increase.

Early signs of systemic arterial hypertension may include persistent headache, confusion, and episodic dizziness.

When other functions of the system are affected, additional symptoms may include pronounced fatigue, vision problems and general malaise.

If the symptoms are ignored, the chances of complications increasing significantly, including strokes, blindness and heart failure.

Causes of Systemic Arterial Hypertension

In addition to existing chronic conditions, such as diabetes, several factors can affect a person’s chances of developing long-term systemic hypertension.

Prolonged physical inactivity, often accompanied by obesity, consumption of a diet deficient in essential vitamins and minerals and a family history of high blood pressure are often considered risk factors for this chronic condition.

Other contributing factors are smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.


Treatment for systemic hypertension usually depends on the origin of the condition.

Those cases that come from a secondary condition first require treatment of the existing condition, once the underlying condition is treated, changes in diet and lifestyle may be enough.

Persistent or primary cases of hypertension are usually treated with medications, depending on the severity of the condition a variety of medications can be used to stabilize blood pressure.

In most cases, beta and calcium channel blockers are prescribed to relieve the stress exerted on the heart muscle and reduce arterial constriction.

Other medications may be used to minimize the risk of further arterial narrowing.

Drugs used to treat Systemic Arterial Hypertension

Patients with primary hypertension are usually treated with medications that reduce blood volume (which reduces central venous pressure and cardiac output), also reduce systemic vascular resistance and reduce cardiac output by reducing heart rate and stroke volume.

Patients with secondary hypertension are treated better by controlling or eliminating the underlying disease or pathology, although they may still require antihypertensive medications.

For most patients with hypertension, the most commonly used classes of drugs (“first-line therapy”) are thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and channel blockers. of calcium.

Comorbidities (for example, stroke, heart failure, valvular disease, kidney disease) also influence when deciding what kind of drug to use to treat hypertension.

Classes of used medications:


  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Hand diuretics.
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics.


  • Alpha-adrenergic antagonists.
  • Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme.
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers.
  • Blockers of calcium channels.
  • Direct-acting arterial dilators.
  • Ganglionic blockers
  • Potassium channel openers.
  • Renin inhibitors.

Inhibitory drugs

  • Beta-blockers
  • Calcium channel blockers.