Spironolactone: How It Is Used, Interactions, Proper Use, Dosage, Precautions, Side Effects and Symptoms of Overdose

It is used in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart failure.

Lowering blood pressure can reduce the risk of stroke and heart attacks.

Spironolactone is also used to diagnose and treat Hyperaldosteronism, a condition in which the adrenal gland produces too much hormone called aldosterone.

This medication may also be used to treat fluid retention (edema) in patients with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or a kidney disorder called nephrotic syndrome.

Spironolactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic (water pill). It prevents your body from absorbing too much salt and prevents your potassium levels from getting too low. This medication is also used to treat or prevent hypokalemia (low levels of potassium in the blood).

This medicine is available only with the prescription of your doctor.

How is its use?

When deciding to take Spironolactone, the risks of taking the medication must be weighed against the good it will do. For this medication, the following should be considered:

  • Allergies: Tell your health care professional if you have any other type of allergy, such as food, dyes, preservatives or animals.
  • Pediatric: No appropriate studies have been conducted on the relationship of age with the effects of Spironolactone in the pediatric population. Safety and efficiency have not been established.
  • Geriatric: No information is available on the relationship between age and the effects of spironolactone in geriatric patients.

The pregnancy

Studies in animals have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR there have been no studies in animals and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.

Breast-feeding

Studies in women suggest that this medication poses a minimal risk to the baby when it is used during breastfeeding.

Drug interactions

The use of this medication with any of the following medications is not recommended:

  • Eplerenona.
  • Triamterene.
  • Aceclofenaco.
  • Acemetacin.
  • Alacepril.
  • Amtolmetin Guacil.
  • Arginine.
  • Arsenic trioxide.
  • Aspirin.
  • Benazepril.
  • Bromfenac.
  • Bufexamac.
  • Captopril.
  • Celecoxib.
  • Choline salicylate.
  • Cilazapril.
  • Clonixin.
  • Delapril.
  • Dexibuprofeno.
  • Dexketoprofeno.
  • Diclofenac.
  • Diflunisal.
  • Digoxin
  • Dipyrone.
  • Droperidol.
  • Droxicam.
  • Enalaprilat.
  • Maleate of Enalapril.
  • Etodolac.
  • Etofenamato.
  • Etoricoxib.
  • Felbinac.
  • Fenoprofeno.
  • Fepradinol.
  • Feprazona.
  • Floctafenina.
  • Flufenamic acid.
  • Flurbiprofeno.
  • Fosinopril.
  • Ibuprofen.
  • Imidapril.
  • Indomethacin
  • Ketoprofeno.
  • Ketorolaco.
  • Levometadilo.
  • Lisinopril.
  • Lithium.
  • Lornoxicam.
  • Loxoprofeno.
  • Lumiracoxib.
  • Meclofenamate.
  • Mefenamic acid.
  • Meloxicam.
  • Moexipril.
  • Morniflumate.
  • Nabumetone.
  • Naproxen
  • Nepafenac.
  • Niflumic acid.
  • Nimesulida.
  • Nimesulide.
  • Beta Cyclodextrin.
  • Oxaprozin.
  • Oxifenbutazona.
  • Parecoxib.
  • Pentopril.
  • Perindopril.
  • Phenylbutazone.
  • Piketoprofen.
  • Piroxicam.
  • Potassium.
  • Pranoprofeno.
  • Proglumetacin.
  • Propifenazone.
  • Proquazone.
  • Quinapril.
  • Ramipril.
  • Rofecoxib.
  • Salicylic acid.
  • Salsalate.
  • Sodium salicylate.
  • Sotalol.
  • Spirapril.
  • Sulindac.
  • Temocapril.
  • Tenoxicam.
  • Thiaprofenic acid.
  • Tolfenamic acid.
  • Tolmetin.
  • Trandolapril.
  • Trimetrim.
  • Valdecoxib.
  • Zofenopril.

Other interactions:

  • Addison’s disease (adrenal problem) or anuria (can not urinate).
  • Hyperkalemia (high levels of potassium in the blood)
  • Kidney disease, severe: should not be used in patients with these conditions.
  • Electrolyte imbalance (eg, low chloride, magnesium or sodium content in the body)
  • Fluidic imbalances (caused by dehydration, vomiting or diarrhea)
  • Severe liver disease (eg, cirrhosis): use with caution. It can make these conditions worse.

Appropriate use

In addition to the use of this medication, treatment for high blood pressure may include weight control and changes in the types of foods you eat, especially foods high in sodium (salt) and potassium.

Many patients who have high blood pressure will not notice any signs of the problem. In fact, many may feel normal.

It is very important that you take your medication exactly as directed and that you go to your doctor’s appointment even if you feel well.

Remember that this medication will not cure your high blood pressure, but it will help control it. You should continue taking it as directed if you expect to lower your blood pressure and keep it low.

You may need to take medications for high blood pressure for the rest of your life.
If high blood pressure is not treated, it can cause serious problems such as heart failure, blood vessel disease, stroke or kidney disease.

Spironolactone dosage

The amount of medication you take depends on the potency of the medication.
In addition, the amount of dose you take each day, the time allowed between doses and the time you take the medication depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medication.
For the oral dosage form (tablets):
For Edema:

  • Adults: at the beginning, 100 milligrams (mg) per day, taken in single or divided doses. Your doctor can adjust your dose if necessary.
  • Children: the use and dosage should be determined by your doctor.
    For heart failure:
  • Adults: at the beginning, 25 milligrams (mg) once a day. Your doctor can adjust your dose if necessary and tolerated.
  • Children: the use and dosage should be determined by your doctor.

For high blood pressure:

  • Adults: at first, 50 to 100 milligrams (mg) per day, taken in single or divided doses. Your doctor can adjust your dose if necessary.
  • Children: the use and dosage should be determined by your doctor.
    For low levels of potassium in the blood:
  • Adults: 25 to 100 milligrams (mg) per day.
  • Children: the use and dosage should be determined by your doctor.

For too much aldosterone in the body:

  • Adults: 400 milligrams (mg) for 4 days or 400 mg per day for 3 to 4 weeks to diagnose the condition. Then, 100 to 400 mg per day after the diagnosis is confirmed.
  • Children: the use and dosage should be determined by your doctor.

Precautions with the use of Spironolactone

It is very important that your doctor check your progress on regular visits to make sure this medication is working correctly and to decide whether you should continue taking it.

Blood and urine tests may be needed to detect unwanted effects.

Do not take this medication together with Eplerenone.

This includes especially potassium supplements or salt substitutes that contain potassium, certain diuretics (such as amiloride, triamterene (Dyazide, Dyrenium, Maxzide, Midamor, Moduretic) or other products that contain Spironolactone (Aldactazide).

This medicine may cause dizziness, drowsiness or lightheadedness.

Be sure you know how you react to this medication before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous until you know how this medication affects you.

Check with your doctor right away if you get sick while taking this medicine, especially if you have severe or continuous nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea that does not stop.

These conditions can cause you to lose too much water or salt and can cause low blood pressure. You can also lose water when you sweat, so drink plenty of water during exercise or in hot weather.

This medication can cause breast swelling (gynecomastia) and breast pain in some patients. If you have questions about this, talk to your doctor.

Side effects of Spironolactone

Along with the necessary effects, a medication can cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects can occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following side effects:

  • Incidence unknown.
  • Abdominal or stomach cramps, burning or sensitivity.
  • Bleeding of the gums.
  • Stools with blood or black, tarry.
  • Bloody urine.
  • Breasts pain.
  • Chest pain.
  • Cold.
  • Stools of clay color.
  • Clear or bloody discharge from the nipple.
  • Cloudy urine.
  • Coma.
  • Confusion.
  • Constipation.
  • Convulsions
  • Cough or hoarseness.
  • Dark urine.
  • Decrease in the production of urine or decrease in the ability to concentrate urine.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Difficulty to swallow.
  • Dimples of the skin of the chest.
  • Dizziness.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat.
  • Fever with or without chills.
  • General feeling of tiredness or weakness.
  • Headache.
  • Acidity.
  • Hives, itching or rash
  • Increased thirst.
  • Indigestion.
  • Inverted nipple
  • Loss of appetite
  • Lumbar or lateral pain.
  • Bulge in the chest or under the arm.
  • Muscle pain or cramps.
  • Muscle spasms.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Painful or difficulty urinating.
  • Persistent crust or peeling of the nipple.
  • Identify red spots on the skin.
  • Swelling or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips or tongue.
  • Redness or swelling of the breast.
  • Severe stomach pain.
  • Tremors and unstable walking.
  • Pain in the chest skin that does not heal.
  • Sore throat.
  • Sores, ulcers or white spots on the lips or in the mouth.
  • Swelling of the face, fingers, feet, ankles or calves.
  • Swollen, painful or tender lymph glands in the neck, armpit or groin.
  • Chest tightness.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Unpleasant smell to the breath.

Symptoms of overdose:

  • Irregular heartbeat.
  • Nervousness.
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands, feet or lips.
  • Rash with flat lesions or small raised lesions on the skin.
  • Reddened skin.
  • Weakness or heaviness of the legs.
  • Some side effects may occur that usually do not require medical attention.

These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medication.

In addition, your health professional can tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.