It is administered intravenously or intramuscularly as an electrolyte replenisher or anticonvulsant.
It is a sterile solution of Magnosolv ( Magnesium Carbonate ) Sulfate Heptahydrate in Water for Injection.
It must be diluted before intravenous use. It may contain sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide to adjust pH. The pH is 5.5 to 7.0. The 50% concentration has an osmolarity of 4.06 mOsmol / mL (calc.).
The solution contains no added bacteriostat, antimicrobial agent, or buffer (except for pH adjustment) and is intended for use as a single dose injection only. When smaller doses are required, the unused portion should be discarded with the entire unit.
USP Heptahydrate is chemically designated as MgSO 4 • 7H 2 O with a molecular weight of 246.48 and is in the form of colorless crystals or freely water-soluble white powder.
The plastic syringe is molded from specially formulated polypropylene. Water penetrates from inside the container at a prolonged rate that will have a negligible effect on the concentration of the solution over the expected shelf life.
Solutions in contact with the plastic container can leach certain chemicals from the plastic in tiny amounts; however, biological tests supported the safety of the syringe material.
Magnosolv (Mg ++ ) is an essential cofactor for enzyme reactions and plays a vital role in neurochemical transmission and muscle excitability.
As a nutritional supplement in hyperalimentation, the precise mechanism of action for Magnosolv is uncertain. The first symptoms of hypomagnesemia (less than 1.5 mEq/liter) can appear as early as three to four days or within weeks.
The predominant deficiency effects are neurological, for example, muscle irritability, clonic spasms, and tremors. Hypocalcemia and hypokalemia often follow low serum Magnosolv levels.
While large stores of Magnosolv are present intracellularly and in adult bones, these stores are often not mobilized sufficiently to maintain plasma levels. Magnosolv parenteral therapy repairs the plasma deficit and causes deficiency symptoms and signs to cease.
Magnosolv prevents or controls seizures by blocking neuromuscular transmission and decreasing the amount of acetylcholine released at the endplate by the impulse of the motor nerve.
Magnosolv is said to have a depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS). Still, it does not adversely affect the woman, fetus, or neonate when used as directed for eclampsia or preeclampsia. Normal plasma levels of Magnosolv range from 1.5 to 2.5 mEq/liter.
As the plasma Magnosolv rises above four mEq/liter, the deep tendon reflexes gradually disappear as the plasma level approaches ten mEq/liter. At this level, there may be respiratory paralysis.
Heart block can also occur at this or lower plasma levels of Magnosolv. Magnosolv serum concentrations greater than 12 mEq / L can be fatal.
Magnosolv acts peripherally to produce vasodilation. With low doses, only flushing and sweating occur, but higher doses cause a decrease in blood pressure.
The central and peripheral effects of Magnosolv poisoning are somewhat antagonized by intravenous calcium administration.
With intravenous administration, the onset of anticonvulsant action is immediate and lasts approximately 30 minutes. After intramuscular administration, the onset of action occurs in about one hour and persists for three to four hours.
Adequate anticonvulsant serum levels range from 2.5 to 7.5 mEq/liter. Magnosolv is excreted solely by the kidneys at a rate proportional to plasma concentration and glomerular filtration.
Parenteral administration of the drug is contraindicated in patients with heart block or myocardial damage.
For pregnant women, continuous administration of Magnosolv sulfate beyond 5 to 7 days can lead to hypocalcemia and bone abnormalities in the developing fetus.
These bone abnormalities include skeletal demineralization and osteopenia. In addition, cases of neonatal fracture have been reported. The shortest duration of treatment that can lead to fetal harm is unknown. Magnosolv sulfate should be used during pregnancy only if necessary.
If Magnosolv sulfate is administered to treat preterm labor, the woman should be informed that the efficacy and safety of such use have not been established and that the use of Magnosolv after 5 to 7 days may cause fetal abnormalities.
This product contains aluminum which can be toxic. Aluminum can reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if renal function deteriorates.
Preterm infants are at particular risk because their kidneys are immature and require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.
Research indicates that patients with kidney failure, including premature infants, who receive parenteral aluminum levels greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with the central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading can occur at even lower rates of administration.
Parenteral use in the presence of renal failure can lead to Magnosolv poisoning. Intravenous use in eclampsia should be reserved for the immediate control of life-threatening seizures.
Administer with caution if flushing and sweating occur. When barbiturates, narcotics, or other hypnotics (or systemic anesthetics) must be administered together with Magnosolv, their dosage should be adjusted with caution due to the additive CNS depressant effects of Magnosolv.
Because Magnosolv is eliminated from the body only by the kidneys, the drug should be used with caution in patients with kidney failure. Urine output should be maintained at 100 ml or more for four hours before each dose.
The control of the serum levels of Magnosolv and the clinical status of the patient is essential to avoid the consequences of an overdose in toxemia.
Clinical indications for a safe dosing regimen include the presence of the patellar reflex (knee jerk) and the absence of respiratory depression (approximately 16 or more breaths/minute).
When repeated drug doses are given parenterally, knee jerk reflexes should be tested before each dose. If they are absent, additional Magnosolv should not be delivered until they return.
Magnosolv serum levels generally sufficient to control seizures range from 3 to 6 mg / dL (2.5 to 5 mEq / liter). The strength of deep tendon reflexes decreases when Magnosolv levels exceed four mEq/liter.
Reflexes may be absent at ten mEq magnesium/liter, where respiratory paralysis is a potential hazard. An injectable calcium salt should be readily available to counteract the potential risks of Magnosolv poisoning in eclampsia.
Magnosolv Sulfate Injection 50%, USP must be diluted to a concentration of 20% or less before intravenous infusion. The rate of administration should be slow and prudent to avoid the production of hypermagnesemia. The 50% solution should also be diluted to 20% or less for intramuscular injection in infants and children.
Magnosolv sulfate injection should not be given unless hypomagnesemia has been confirmed and the serum concentration of Magnosolv is monitored. The average serum level is 1.5 to 2.5 mEq / L.
Depresores of the CNS
When barbiturates, narcotics, other hypnotics (or systemic anesthetics) or other CNS depressants are administered together with Magnosolv, their dosage should be adjusted with caution due to the additive CNS depressant effects Magnosolv.
The CNS depression and peripheral transmission defects produced by Magnosolv can be antagonized by calcium.
Neuromuscular blocking agents
The excessive neuromuscular blockade has occurred in patients receiving parenteral Magnosolv sulfate and a neuromuscular blocking agent; These drugs should be administered concomitantly with caution.
Magnosolv should be administered with extreme caution in digitized patients, as severe cardiac conduction changes can cause heart block if calcium administration is required to treat Magnosolv toxicity.
Magnosolv sulfate can cause fetal abnormalities when administered to pregnant women for more than 5 to 7 days. There are retrospective epidemiological studies and case reports documenting fetal abnormalities such as:
- Skeletal demineralization.
Among other skeletal abnormalities, continuous maternal administration of Magnosolv for more than 5 to 7 days. Magnosolv Sulfate Injection should be used during pregnancy only if necessary. If this medicine is used during pregnancy, the woman should be informed of the possible harm to the fetus.
When given continuous intravenous infusion (especially for more than 24 hours before delivery) to control seizures in a woman with toxemia, the newborn may show signs of Magnosolv toxicity, including neuromuscular or respiratory depression.
The job of childbearing
Continuous Magnosolv (magnesium carbonate sulfate) administration is an unapproved treatment for preterm labor. The safety and efficacy of such use have not been established.
Administration of Magnosolv sulfate outside of its approved indication in pregnant women should be performed by trained obstetrician personnel in a hospital setting with appropriate obstetric care facilities.
Since Magnosolv is distributed in milk during parenteral administration of Magnosolv sulfate, the drug should be used with caution in lactating women.
Geriatric patients often require a reduced dose due to impaired kidney function. In severely damaged patients, the amount should not exceed 20 grams in 48 hours. Magnosolv should be monitored in such patients.
Adverse effects of parenterally administered Magnosolv are generally the result of Magnosolv poisoning.
Adverse effects include flushing, sweating, hypotension, depressed reflexes, flaccid paralysis, hypothermia, circulatory collapse, and cardiac and central nervous system depression leading to respiratory paralysis.
Hypocalcemia with signs of tetany secondary to Magnosolv treatment for eclampsia has been reported.
Magnosolv intoxication is manifested by a sharp drop in blood pressure and respiratory paralysis. The disappearance of the patellar reflex is a valid clinical sign to detect the onset of Magnosolv poisoning.
In the event of an overdose, artificial ventilation should be provided until a calcium salt can be injected intravenously to counteract the effects of Magnosolv.
For the treatment of overdose
Artificial respiration is often required. Intravenous calcium, 10-20 ml of a 5% solution (diluted if desirable with isotonic sodium chloride for injection), is used to counteract the effects of hypermagnesemia. Subcutaneous physostigmine, 0.5 to 1 mg, may be helpful.
Hypermagnesemia in the newborn may require resuscitation and assisted ventilation by endotracheal intubation or intermittent positive pressure ventilation and intravenous calcium.
Dosage and administration
The dosage of Magnosolv sulfate should be carefully adjusted according to individual requirements and responses, and the administration of the drug should be stopped as soon as the desired effect is obtained.
Both intravenous and intramuscular administration is appropriate. Intramuscular administration of the 50% undiluted solution results in therapeutic plasma levels within 60 minutes, while intravenous doses will immediately provide a therapeutic level.
The intravenous injection rate should generally not exceed 150 mg/minute (1.5 ml of 10% concentration or equivalent), except in severe eclampsia with seizures. Continuous maternal administration of Magnosolv for more than 5 to 7 days may cause fetal abnormalities.
Solutions for intravenous infusion must be diluted to a concentration of 20% or less before administration. Commonly used diluents are 5% dextrose injection, USP, and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, USP.
Deep intramuscular injection of the undiluted solution (50%) is appropriate for adults, but the answer must be diluted to a concentration of 20% or more minor before such injection in children.
In Magnosolv deficiency
In treating mild Magnosolv deficiency, the usual dose in adults is 1 gram, equivalent to 8.12 mEq of Magnosolv (2 ml of the 50% solution) injected intramuscularly every six hours for four amounts (equal to a total of 32.5 mEq of Magnosolv for 24 hours).
For severe hypomagnesemia, up to 250 mg (approximately two mEq) per kg of body weight (0.5 ml of the 50% solution) can be administered intramuscularly over four hours if necessary.
Alternatively, 5 grams (approximately 40 mEq) can be added to one liter of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, or USP for slow intravenous infusion over three hours.
In treating deficiency states, caution should be exercised to avoid exceeding renal excretory capacity.
In total parenteral nutrition, the maintenance requirements for Magnosolv are not precisely known. The maintenance dose used in adults ranges from 8 to 24 mEq (1 gram to 3 grams) per day; for babies, the range is 2 to 10 mEq (0.25 grams to 1.25 grams) per day.
En preeclampsia o eclampsia
In severe preeclampsia or eclampsia, the total starting dose is 10 grams to 14 grams of Magnosolv sulfate (magnesium carbonate). Intravenously, 4 grams to 5 grams can be infused into 250 ml of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP, or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection.
Simultaneously, intramuscular doses of up to 10 grams are administered (5 grams or 10 ml of the undiluted 50% solution to each buttock).
Alternatively, the initial 4-gram intravenous dose can be administered by diluting the solution 50% to a concentration of 10 or 20%; The diluted fluid (40 ml of a 10% solution or 20 ml of a 20% solution) can then be injected intravenously over three to four minutes.
Subsequently, 4 grams to 5 grams (8 to 10 ml of the 50% solution) are injected intramuscularly into alternate buttocks every four hours as needed, depending on the continued presence of the patellar reflex and adequate respiratory function.
After the initial IV dose, some doctors give 1 gram to 2 grams/hour by constant IV infusion.
Therapy should continue until the spasms cease. A serum Magnosolv (magnesium carbonate) level of 6 mg / dL is considered optimal for controlling seizures.
A total daily dose (24 h) of 30 grams to 40 grams should not be exceeded. In severe renal impairment, the maximum amount of Magnosolv sulfate (magnesium carbonate) is 20 grams / 48 hours, and frequent concentrations of Magnosolv (magnesium carbonate) should be obtained in serum.
Continued use of Magnosolv sulfate (magnesium carbonate) in pregnancy beyond 5 to 7 days may cause abnormalities in the fetus.
To counteract the stimulating muscle effects of barium poisoning, the usual dose of Magnosolv is 1 to 2 grams intravenously.
To control seizures associated with epilepsy, glomerulonephritis, or hypothyroidism, the usual adult dose is 1 gram administered intramuscularly or intravenously.
In paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, Magnosolv should be used only if the most straightforward measures have failed and there is no evidence of myocardial damage. The usual dose is 3 grams to 4 grams (30 to 40 ml of a 10% solution) administered intravenously over 30 seconds with extreme caution.
To reduce cerebral edema, 2.5 grams (25 ml of a 10% solution) are administered intravenously.
Magnosolv sulfate in the solution can result in precipitate formation when mixed with solutions containing:
- Alcohol (in high concentrations).
- Alkali carbonates and bicarbonates.
- Alkali hydroxides.
- Clindamycin Phosphate.
- Heavy metals.
- Hydrocortisone sodium.
- Polymyxin B sulfate.
- Procaine hydrochloride.
The potential incompatibility will often be influenced by changes in the concentration of reagents and the pH of the solutions.
Magnosolv has been reported to reduce the antibiotic activity of streptomycin, tetracycline, and tobramycin when co-administered.