Furoxone: Indications, Interactions, Mechanism of Action, Dosage, Side Effects and Storage

It is a broad spectrum antibiotic and anti-infective that is effective against most pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract.

Its active ingredient is furazolidone .

Indications of furoxone

It is indicated in treatments for:

Anger

Furazolidone is indicated as a secondary agent in the treatment of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae.

Bacterial diarrhea

Furoxone is indicated as a secondary agent in the treatment of bacterial diarrhea caused by susceptible organisms. Furazolidone is active in vitro against:

  • Campylobacter jejuni.
  • Enterobacter aerogenes.
  • Escherichia coli.
  • Protein species.
  • Salmonella species.
  • Shigella species and staphylococci.

Giardiasis

Giardia lamblia, also called Giardia duodenalis or Giardia intestinalis , is a protozoan parasite of the small intestine that causes great morbidity throughout the world. Furazolidone is an effective alternative, but it should be given four times a day for 7 to 10 days.

Acute infectious diarrhea is one of the widespread causes of morbidity and mortality. Some of the main diarrheal diseases are cholera, typhoid fever, shigellosis (bacillary dysentery), salmonellosis, “traveler’s diarrhea” and giardiasis.

These diseases can be prevented with proper education, sanitation, and hygiene. However, most of these diseases occur more frequently in areas of the world where political and social unrest, poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education prevail.

Although vaccines are available for some of the diseases, they are not completely effective. Antimicrobial therapy is effective in reducing the duration and severity of diarrhea and in reducing the likelihood of relapses, complications, and death.

An antimicrobial drug for the treatment of acute infectious diarrheal disease must be relatively specific, effective and safe, and must not promote the growth of resistant bacteria.

Its effectiveness has often been shown to be comparable to or superior to that of other drugs. Furthermore, the toxicity of furazolidone is relatively low and minimizes the development of resistant organisms.

These characteristics should contribute to the continued use of furazolidone as a rational option in the treatment of acute infectious diarrheal diseases that occur worldwide.

Interactions

What medication (s) or drugs can interact with furazolidone?

  • Alcohol.
  • Bupropión.
  • Caffeine.
  • Ciclobenzaprine.
  • Dextromethorphan.
  • Diet pills.
  • Stimulants or drugs.
  • Medicines for allergies, colds, hay fever, sinusitis, and shortness of breath.
  • Migraine medications (such as naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan or Midrin®).
  • Medications for MAO inhibitor medications, examples: phenelzine (Nardil®), tranylcypromine (Parnate®), isocarboxazid (Marplan®).
  • Medicines for mental depression , anxiety, psychotic disorders, or other mental problems.
  • Some medicines for Parkinson’s disease, such as entacapone, levodopa, or tolcapone.
  • Grass of San Juan.
  • Hypericum.
  • Perforatum.
  • Tramadol.
  • Tryptophan
  • Tiramina.

Furazolidone can interact with certain foods that contain tyramine and can cause:

  • Severe headaches
  • Increase in blood pressure or irregular heartbeat.

Foods that contain significant amounts of tyramine include:

  • Cured cheeses.
  • Meat and fish.
  • Mortadella, pepperoni, salami, summer sausage.
  • Beer.
  • Alcohol-free beer.
  • Wine (very red).
  • Jerez.
  • Strong liquor.
  • Avocados
  • Bananas
  • Figs
  • Raisins.
  • Soy sauce.
  • Miso soup.
  • Yeast / protein extracts.
  • Bean curd.
  • Fava or broad bean pods.
  • Overripe fruit.

Mechanism of action of furoxone

The mechanism of action of furazolidone on susceptible bacteria and protozoa (including Giardia and trichomonas) has not been definitively determined, but appears to include the inhibition of oxidative reactions, the discharge of the capsule to an acetyl coenzyme A, thus reducing the energy available for the vital cellular functions.

Furthermore, the intracellular reductive metabolism of the nitro group of furazolidone is likely to generate reactive metabolites that bind to parasite DNA, blocking replication and transcription.

Furazolidone is widely distributed and extensively metabolized, with renal excretion predominant, with little parent drug present.

Dosage

The doctor will prescribe the presentation and the doses of this medicine according to the case of each patient. It is recommended to follow the orders and instructions for its proper use. Do not exceed the dose or the time established by the health professional.

Side effects of furoxone

Adverse reactions include:

  • Diarrhea.
  • Fever.
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • The urticaria , serum disease, hypoglycemia and orthostatic hypotension occurring rarely.

Storage

  • Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.
  • Store at room temperature between 15-30 degrees C (59-86 degrees F).