Domperidone: Chemical Formula, Mechanism of Action, Indications, Dosage, Side Effects, Precautions and Contraindications

It is a specific blocker of dopamine receptors.

Accelerates gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes the release of prolactin, and is used as an antiemetic and a tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.

It is used to treat slow movement in the gastrointestinal tract associated with diabetes and gastritis (inflammation of the lining of the stomach).

In these cases, Domperidone improves the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, swelling and fullness. It is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other medicines.

Chemical formula

C22H24ClN5O2

Mechanism of action

Domperidone acts as a gastrointestinal complement of emptying (delayed) and peristaltic stimulant.

The gastroprokinetic properties of Domperidone are related to its blocking properties of the peripheral dopamine receptor.

It facilitates gastric emptying and decreases the transit time of the small intestine, increasing esophageal and gastric peristalsis and decreasing esophageal sphincter pressure.

The antiemetic properties of Domperidone are related to its dopamine receptor blocking activity in both the chemoreceptor activation zone and the gastric level.

It has strong affinities for the dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, which are located in the chemoreceptor activation zone, located just outside the blood-brain barrier, which, among others, regulates nausea and vomiting.

Indications

This medication increases movement through the digestive system.

It is used to treat the symptoms of stomach disorders such as reflux.

It can also be used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by certain medications, such as those used to treat Parkinson’s disease and for the adverse effects of chemotherapy.

Dose

This product is available in the following dosage forms: Tablets and suspension.

The maximum recommended dose is a total of 30 mg daily in the shortest possible duration of treatment.

Many things can affect the dose of a medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions and other medications.

Generally, the recommended dose in: children over 35 kg, is 2.5 ml per 10 kg of weight, with a maximum daily dose of 35 mg that is supplied orally, generally 15 to 30 minutes before the meals and before going to bed, in case of nocturnal reflux.

Precautions and contraindications

This medication can not be given if you have ever had an allergic reaction to Domperidone or any of the other ingredients, when you have or are suspected to have serious intestinal problems such as:

As internal bleeding (symptoms are persistent movements of the black intestine), or a blockage or perforation of the stomach or intestine (usually this involves severe stomach cramps) rupture in the lining of the stomach or intestines.

As well as suffer from some tumor of the pituitary gland called prolactinoma, abnormal levels of potassium, magnesium or calcium in your blood, heart disease, liver failure taking the medicine ketoconazole.

Side effects

Many medications can cause side effects.

A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.

The side effects listed below are not experienced by all people taking this medication and have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication.

Many of these side effects can be controlled, and some may go away on their own over time.

1.- Pain in the breasts
2.- Diarrhea
3.- Dry mouth
4.- Headache
5.- Migraine
6.- Mother’s milk that flows from the nipple
7.- Pulse or rapid pulse, strong or accelerated
8.- Menstruation irregular

Adverse reactions

Because this medication improves movement in the digestive tract, it can affect the absorption and action of other medications.

Therefore, administration is not recommended in conjunction with drugs that are potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4).

To avoid adverse reactions, the attending physician must know if the patient is being administered or was recently given any of the following medications:

  • Opioid analgesics, used to treat pain
  • Ketoconazole, used to treat fungal infections
  • Ritonavir, used to treat HIV infection
  • Erythromycin, used to treat infections
  • Antimuscarinics, used to treat bladder or gastrointestinal disorders
  • Amantadine, used to treat viral infections
  • Bromocriptine or cabergoline, used for the treatment of pituitary tumors or Parkinson’s disease

If taken with these medications, the effect of Domperidone may be altered.