Ciproxin: Formula, Presentation, Indications, Mechanism of Action, Secondary Effects and Contraindications

It is active against pathogenic gram-positive organisms such as staphylococci and streptococci. Plasmid-bearing bacteria are also sensitive to the drug.

Ciproxin whose generic component is ciprofloxacin is a synthetic antibiotic (fluoroquinolones) with broad-spectrum bactericidal effects.

Ciproxin is effective for all Gram-negative pathogenic organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

It is also active against gram-positive pathogenic organisms such as staphylococci and streptococci and plasmid-bearing bacteria are also sensitive to ciproxin.

Anaerobic organisms are less susceptible.

Ciprofloxacin can be used in combination with other antibiotics such as:

  • In the therapy of pseudomonas : Meftacidima and Azlocillin.
  • In streptococcal therapy : Mezlocillin, azlocillin and other effective β-lactam antibiotics.
  • In staphylococcal therapy : β-lactam antibiotics, especially isoxazolylpenicillins, vancomycin.
  • In anaerobic therapy : Clindamycin and Metronidazole.

Chemical formula

C17H18FN3O3

Presentation

Suspension, tablets, injectable solution and inhalers.

Indications

Adults:

It is indicated in infections caused by alterable pathogens to ciproxin:

  • Infections in the respiratory tract.
  • Pneumonia caused by Proteus, Pneumococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, E. coli, Haemophilus, Legionella, Branhamella and Staphylococcus.
  • Otitis media or middle ear infections, sinusitis or sinus infections, mainly if they are caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas or Staphylococcus.
  • Infections in the eyes
  • Renal and efferent urinary tract infections.
  • Infections of the genital organs and gonorrhea , adnexitis, prostatitis .
  • Infections of the gastrointestinal tract, peritonitis, infections of the biliary tract and any other of the abdominal cavity.
  • Infections in soft tissues and skin.
  • Osteoarticular infections.
  • Sepsis.
  • Infections or risk of infection in patients suffering from neutropenia or in treatment with immunosuppressants.
  • Selective intestinal decontamination in immunosuppressed patients.

Children

  • Complicated infections in the urinary tract and pyelonephritis, E. coli
  • Acute pulmonary exacerbation associated with P. aeruginosa.

Dose

In general, the administration guidelines of Ciprofloxacin are the following:

In adults, 100 to 750 mg twice daily is prescribed during the period prescribed by the attending physician according to the degree and type of infection.

In the doses to be administered in children and young people, this is strictly subject to medical prescription.

The ingestion of the ciproxine treatment should not be accompanied by dairy products such as milk or yogurt, nor with fruit juice enriched with minerals such as calcium, since it affects the absorption of Ciproxin.

Mechanism of action

The bactericidal action of ciproxin is rapid, both in the proliferation phase and in the resting phase.

Ciproxin interferes with the replication of bacterial DNA by inhibiting the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV.

During the multiplication phase of a bacterium, the chromosomes coil and uncoil partially.

The enzyme called DNA gyrase plays a determining role in this process.

Ciproxin inhibits the function of DNA gyrase so that, since it is not possible to read the vital information of the bacterial chromosome, bacterial metabolism is impossible.

Side effects

Some side effects reported with the use of Ciproxin are:

  • Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, nausea and loss of appetite.
  • Skin hypersensitivity to ultra violet radiation, special caution should be taken with exposure to sunlight and UVA cabins.
  • Joint pains
  • Headaches.
  • Difficulty to be able to sleep.

Precautions

Special caution should be exercised with patients presenting risk factors such as:

  • Cardiac alterations : Bradycardia, heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia of the Torsades de Pointes type, uncorrected electrolyte imbalances: hypokalemiaand hypomagnesemia.
  • Advanced age.
  • Nervous system disorders that predispose to seizures, in cases of low seizure threshold, history of seizures and epilepsy.
  • Reduced cerebral blood risk, cardiovascular accidents or cerebral organic alteration.
  • Patients with a family history or G6PDH deficit due to risk of hemolysis (assess risk, benefit and monitor).
  • Resistance risk in prolonged treatment.

Contraindications

Ciproxin is contraindicated in cases of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin or any other class of quinolone-type chemotherapeutic agents.

It should be prescribed only in the indicated cases of the drug in children and adolescents, since there is not enough experience on the safety of the drug in these age groups.

Concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin and tizanidine should not be performed.

Because this combination can lead to an undesirable increase in plasma concentrations of tizanidine producing hypotension, drowsiness and insomnia.

Do not give Ciproxin during pregnancy or breast-feeding.

The use of alcoholic beverages can increase the adverse effects of Ciproxin, so you should avoid or moderate consumption during treatment.