The organism requires salt for its normal functioning. Salt contains sodium, and this helps the body perform many metabolic functions.
Excess sodium in the diet can be harmful, especially if you have high blood pressure or heart failure.
The low sodium diet reduces the amount of salt consumed daily in patients with these pathologies.
A low-sodium diet is a diet for therapeutic purposes; sodium is restricted; this degree varies according to the disease.
Up to 5 levels of sodium restriction are established:
- 4 grams of sodium.
- 2 grams of sodium.
- 1 gram of sodium
- 500 milligrams of sodium.
- 250 milligrams of sodium.
Low sodium diets are prescribed for the control and prevention of edema and arterial hypertension.
Indications in the low sodium diet
The low sodium diet can be prescribed when you are in the presence of the following pathologies:
- High blood pressure problems.
- Presence of heart diseases: Postoperative cardiac surgery, ischemic cardiopathy, congestive heart failure.
- Presence of renal affections: hematogenous glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal or acute insufficiency.
- Presence of liver cirrhosis.
- Idiopathic cyclic edema.
- Being on very long treatments with corticosteroids
This diet is not recommended in the following cases:
- In case of pregnancy: It is only recommended if there was previously a disease that requires a low sodium diet.
- In the case of ileostomies.
- In the case of lithium therapy.
- In the case of nephropathies with sodium loss.
- Conditions that involve sodium losses.
Sources of sodium
The primary sources of sodium in the diet are:
- 15% Sodium is naturally contained in food.
- 20% Sodium is added as common salt during the preparation of food.
- 60% Sodium is added during the manufacture and processing of food.
- 5% Other types of sources.
Some of these other sources are:
- Disodium phosphate: Soft drinks, cheese, butter, cereals.
- Monosodium glutamate: They are products to increase and highlight the flavor, condiments, meats, pickles, items for baking, and soups.
- Sodium Alginate: Smoothies and chocolates.
- Sodium Benzoate: Fruit juice.
- Sodium hydroxide: Canned as peas.
- Sodium propionate: Bread.
- Sodium sulfite: Nuts, vegetables prepared for soup, salads.
- Sodium Pectinate: Syrups, sorbets, cake masses, salad dressings, butter, packaged compotes, jams, and jellies.
- Sodium caseinate: Products in the frozen state.
- Baking soda: Yeasts, tomato soups, flours, sorbet, and jam.
- Nitrates and sodium nitrites: Used as a preservative in processed meats and sausages.
Among the unprocessed foods with sodium content are those of animal origin: Eggs, seafood, fish, meat, and dairy.
Low sodium diet menu
To follow a hypersonic diet, salt must be reduced in the foods that are consumed and take into account the following:
- Consume vegetables, fruits, meats, chicken or turkey, and fresh or frozen fish.
- Check the labels on the amount of salt contained in the processed foods and check the package for brands such as: “Low in sodium,” “Reduced in sodium,” “Free of sodium”, and “Without added salt.”
- Foods that contain high salt content should not be consumed, such as:
- Processed foods: Cured or smoked meat, bacon, hot dog, sausage, mortadella, ham, and salami.
- Anchovy, olive, pickled and sauerkraut.
- Soy and Worcestershire sauce, vegetable juice, and almost all cheeses.
- Dressings and mixes for bottled salads
- Chips, cookies, and others.
It is recommended to season foods with spices, herbs, oil, vinegar, garlic, and lemon instead of salt. When visiting a restaurant, you should choose grilled, boiled, without sauce, cheese, or salt, and as a dessert, choose fresh fruit or sherbet-free ice cream.
Among the foods allowed in the low sodium diet are:
- Meats, poultry, viscera such as tongue, kidneys, liver, and sausages with low sodium content.
- Fresh fish.
- Dairy products include fresh milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, mozzarella, and other unsalted cheeses.
- Pasta, cereals, bread, without salt, flours.
- Fresh vegetables such as Legumes, vegetables, vegetables.
- Natural fruit, natural juice, nuts without salt.
- Fats: Butter, margarine, cream, cream of milk, and mayonnaise without salt or vegetable oils.
- Sugar, pastry and, homemade ice cream, cocoa.
- Condiments: Garlic, pepper, paprika, herbs, lemon, saffron, cinnamon, vinegar, and mustard without salt.
- Natural water or mineral water, soda, and siphon.
The meals in the low sodium diets usually have little flavor.
It is necessary to make your consumption more attractive, take into account the following recommendations:
- The meals should be attractive to the eye, with good presentation, varied colors, and textures.
- Proper cooking and the use of grills, plates, and ovens instead of water.
- At the moment of seasoning use, spices, aromatic herbs, flavored oils, seeds, acid, and sweet flavors enhance the flavor of food and make them more pleasant to taste.
- Do not use potassium chloride or diet salts because it contains potassium, which is not beneficial for the diet.