Cardiopathy: Definition, Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Prevention

Heart disease is a term that covers any disorder of the heart.

Unlike cardiovascular diseases, which describe problems with the blood vessels and the circulatory system, as well as the heart, heart diseases only refer to problems and deformities in the heart itself.

According to the Centers for Disease Control, heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Australia. One in four deaths in the US UU., Occurs as a result of heart disease.


There are many different types of heart diseases that affect different parts of the organ and occur in different ways.

Congenital heart disease:

This is a general term for some heart deformities that have been present since birth.

Examples include:

  • Septal defects: there is a hole between the two chambers of the heart.
  • Obstruction defects: the flow of blood through several chambers of the heart is partially or totally blocked.
  • Cyanotic heart disease: a defect in the heart causes a shortage of oxygen around the body.


The arrhythmia is an irregular heartbeat. There are several ways in which a heartbeat can lose its regular rhythm. These include:

  • Tachycardia , when the heart beats too fast.
  • Bradycardia , when the heart beats too slow.
  • Premature ventricular contractions or additional abnormal heartbeats.
  • Fibrillation , when the heartbeat is irregular.

Arrhythmias occur when the electrical impulses in the heart that coordinate the heartbeat do not work correctly. These make the heart beat in a way that it should not, either too fast, too slow or too irregular.

Irregular heartbeats are common and all people experience them. They feel like a heart fluttering or accelerating. However, when they change too much or occur due to a damaged or weak heart, they should be taken more seriously and treated. Arrhythmias can become fatal.

Coronary artery disease:

The coronary arteries supply the heart muscle with nutrients and oxygen through the circulation of blood.

The coronary arteries can become diseased or damaged, usually due to plaque deposits that contain cholesterol. The buildup of plaque reduces the coronary arteries, and this causes the heart to receive less oxygen and nutrients.

Dilated cardiomyopathy:

The chambers of the heart dilate as a result of the weakness of the heart muscle and can not pump blood properly.

The most common reason is that not enough oxygen reaches the heart muscle due to coronary artery disease. This usually affects the left ventricle.

Myocardial infarction:

This is also known as heart attack , myocardial infarction and coronary thrombosis. An interrupted blood flow damages or destroys part of the heart muscle.

This is usually caused by a blood clot that develops in one of the coronary arteries and can also occur if an artery narrows or spasms suddenly.

Heart failure:

Also known as congestive heart failure, heart failure occurs when the heart does not pump blood around the body efficiently.

The left or right side of the heart may be affected. Rarely, both sides are.

Coronary artery disease or high blood pressure can, over time, leave the heart too stiff or weak to fill and pump correctly.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:

This is a genetic disorder in which the wall of the left ventricle thickens, making it difficult to draw blood from the heart.

This is the main cause of sudden death in athletes. A father with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has a 50 percent chance of transmitting the disorder to his children.

Mitral regurgitation:

Also known as mitral valve regurgitation, mitral regurgitation or mitral incompetence, this occurs when the mitral valve in the heart does not close enough. This allows the blood to return to the heart when it should come out.

As a result, blood can not move through the heart or body efficiently. People with these types of heart conditions often feel tired and out of breath.

Prolapse of the mitral valve:

The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle does not close completely, swelling upwards or towards the atrium.

In most people, the condition is not life threatening and treatment is not required. Some people, especially if the condition is marked by mitral regurgitation, may require treatment.

Pulmonary stenosis:

It is difficult for the heart to pump blood from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery because the pulmonary valve is too tight.

The right ventricle has to work harder to overcome the obstruction. A baby with severe stenosis may turn blue. Older children will usually have no symptoms.

Treatment is needed if the pressure in the right ventricle is too high, and a balloon valvuloplasty or open-heart surgery can be performed to clear an obstruction.


The symptoms of heart disease depend on what condition affects an individual.
However, common symptoms include chest pain, dyspnea and heart palpitations.

Chest pain, common to many types of heart disease, is called angina, or angina , and occurs when a part of the heart does not get enough oxygen.

Angina can be triggered by stressful events or physical exertion and usually lasts less than 10 minutes.

Heart attacks can also occur as a result of different types of heart disease. The signs of a heart attack are similar to angina, except that they may occur during rest and tend to be more severe.

The symptoms of a heart attack sometimes look like indigestion. Acidity and stomach pain may occur, as well as a feeling of heaviness in the chest.

Other symptoms of a heart attack include:

  • Pain that travels through the body, for example, from the chest to the arms, neck, back, abdomen or jaw.
  • Sensation of dizziness.
  • Abundant sweating.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

Heart failure is also a result of heart disease, and dyspnea can occur when the heart becomes too weak to circulate blood.

Some heart conditions occur without any symptoms, especially in older adults and people with diabetes.

The term ” congenital heart disease ” covers a variety of conditions, but the general symptoms include:

  • Perspiration.
  • High levels of fatigue.
  • Rapid heartbeat and breathing.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Chest pain.
  • A blue tint on the skin.
  • Nails nailed.

In severe cases, symptoms can occur from birth. However, these symptoms may not develop until a person is over 13 years old.


Heart disease is caused by damage to all or part of the heart, damage to the coronary arteries, or deficient supply of nutrients and oxygen to the organ.

Some types of heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, are genetic. These, along with congenital heart defects, can occur before a person is born.

There are a number of lifestyle choices that can increase the risk of heart disease. These include:

  • High blood pressure and cholesterol.
  • Smoke.
  • Overweight and obesity.
  • Diabetes.
  • Family history.
  • A diet of junk food.
  • A history of preeclampsia during pregnancy.

Staying in a stationary position for extended periods of time, such as sitting at work or having any of these risk factors greatly increases the risk of heart disease. Some, like age, are unavoidable.

For example, once a woman reaches 55 years of age, heart disease becomes more likely.


There are two main lines of treatment for heart disease. Initially, a person may try to treat the heart condition with medication. If these do not have the desired effect, surgical options are available to help correct the problem.


A wide range of medications is available for most heart conditions. Many are prescribed to prevent blood clots, but some serve other purposes.

The main medications in use are:

  • Statins, to reduce cholesterol.
  • Aspirin, clopidogrel and warfarin , to prevent blood clots.
  • Beta-blockers, to treat heart attack , heart failure and high blood pressure.
  • Inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme for heart failure and high blood pressure.

Your doctor will work with you to find a drug that is safe and effective. They will also use medications to treat underlying conditions that can affect the heart, such as diabetes, before they become problematic.


Cardiac surgery is an option for people with heart disease, but it can be debilitating. Cardiac surgery is an intensive option that can take a long time to recover.

However, they can be effective in the treatment of blockages and heart problems for which medications may not be effective, especially in the later stages of heart disease.

The most common surgeries include:

  • Angioplasty , in which a balloon catheter is inserted to widen narrowed blood vessels that may be restricting blood flow to the heart.
  • Coronary artery bypass surgery, which allows blood flow to reach a blocked part of the heart in people with blocked arteries.
  • Surgery to repair or replace defective heart valves.
  • Pacemakers, or electronic machines that regulate the heartbeat for people with arrhythmia.

Heart transplants are another option. However, it is often difficult to find an adequate heart of the right size and blood type in the time required.

People are placed on a waiting list for donor organs and can sometimes wait years.


Some types of heart disease, such as those that are present from birth, can not be prevented.

Other types, however, can be prevented by taking the following measures:

Eat a balanced diet: Follow foods that are low in fat and high in fiber, and be sure to eat five servings of fresh fruits and vegetables every day. Increase your intake of whole grains and reduce the amount of salt and sugar in your diet. Make sure that fats in your diet are mostly unsaturated.

Exercise regularly: This will strengthen the heart and circulatory system, reduce cholesterol and maintain blood pressure. Maintain a healthy body weight for your height. If you smoke, quit. Smoking is an important risk factor for heart and cardiovascular diseases.

Reduce your alcohol intake: Do not drink more than 14 units per week.

Control conditions that affect the health of the heart as a complication, such as high blood pressure or diabetes.

While these steps do not completely eliminate the risk of heart disease, they can help improve overall health and greatly reduce the chances of heart complications.

“Smoking a single cigarette per day can increase the risk of heart disease,” according to a new study in the BMJ.

Research suggests that cutting cigarettes completely is the only way to reduce this risk, instead of simply reducing the number of cigarettes.

A new study also suggests that restless legs syndrome (RLS) can also increase the risk of death from heart-related conditions, especially in older women.