Mixed Dyslipidemia: Causes, Symptoms, Risks, Diagnosis and Treatment

It is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, which includes lipoprotein deficiency or overproduction of these.

Causes of mixed dyslipidemia

Common causes of mixed dyslipidemia include:

  • Obesity, especially excess weight around the waist.
  • Diabetes.
  • Hypothyroidism .
  • Alcohol use disorder, also known as alcoholism.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • Metabolic syndrome.
  • Excess fat intake, especially saturated and trans fats.
  • Cushing’s syndrome.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease, commonly known as IBS.
  • Severe infections, such as HIV .
  • An abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Symptoms and risks of mixed dyslipidemia

Most people with mixed dyslipidemia can’t tell they have it at first. It is not something you can feel, but you will notice its effects one day. Cholesterol, along with triglycerides and other fats, can build up inside your arteries.

This makes the blood vessels narrower and makes it harder for blood to pass through. Your blood pressure could go up.

The buildup can also cause a blood clot to form. If a blood clot breaks off and travels to your heart, it causes a heart attack. If it goes to your brain, it can cause a stroke.

Diagnosis

Your doctor should check your lipid levels regularly. A blood test called a lipoprotein panel is needed.

Cholesterol levels:

  • LDL : the “bad” cholesterol that builds up inside your arteries.
  • HDL cholesterol : the “good” cholesterol that lowers the risk of heart disease.
  • Triglycerides : another type of fat in your blood.

It is recommended that adults age 20 and older have cholesterol tests every 4 to 6 years. You may have to wait 9 to 12 hours before the test.

Total cholesterol of 200 mg / dL or more is outside the normal range. Your doctor will consider things like your age, if you smoke, and if they are unfamiliar with heart problems to decide if your specific test numbers are high and what to do with them.

Treatment of mixed dyslipidemia

An important class of medications known as fibrates is an important source of treatment for mixed dyslipidemia. Overall, this is a well-tolerated class; it is rarely associated with multiple security problems.

Fibrates most likely reversibly increase homocysteine ​​and creatinine through a process arbitrated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, with an increased risk of renal failure in clinical trials.

Fibrite-statin therapy can stimulate reductions in TG and LDL-C and at the same time increases in HDL-C.

Fibrates are associated with a slightly increased risk (<1.0%) of venous thrombosis, cholelithiasis, and myopathy.

Fibrates are also associated with increased non-cardiovascular mortality in clinical trials. The combination of statins and gemfibrozil is generally avoided.

Mixed therapy with statins and niacin is considered useful in cases of residual cardiovascular risk.

Statins are most commonly added to niacin in patients with combined hyperlipidemia, especially if lipoproteins are high or HDL is low.

Although there has been a 30% reduction in CHD events, as shown in one study, the combined treatment of statins and niacin has resulted in a 75% reduction.

For some people, dietary and lifestyle changes may be enough to bring their cholesterol levels into a healthy range. Other people may need more help.

Nicotinic acid also affects how your liver makes fat. It lowers your LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and increases your HDL cholesterol. Fibrates are another type of medicine that works on your liver. They lower triglycerides and can increase HDL, but they are not as good at lowering your LDL.

Lifestyle

Lifestyle changes that can lower your cholesterol include a healthy diet, weight loss, and exercise.

Important tips:

  • Choose foods low in trans fat.
  • Eat more foods rich in fiber, such as oatmeal, apples, bananas, pears, prunes.
  • Eat fish twice a week
  • Limit your alcohol, too. That means no more than one drink a day if you are a woman or two if you are a man.
  • Improve your exercise habits. Aim for about 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity, such as brisk walking, most days of the week. You don’t have to do it all at once. Even 10-15 minutes at a time can make a difference.