Urolithiasis: Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment

Definition: refers to the stones found in the ureter.

The calculations are typically classified by their location or chemical composition (containing calcium, uric acid, or other compounds). About 80% of men suffer from kidney stones .

Kidney stones normally leave the body thanks to the passage in the flow of urine, and many stones are formed and pass without causing symptoms. If the stones reach a considerable size (usually 3 millimeters) they can cause an obstruction in the ureter . Urethral obstruction causes hydronephrosis (distension and dilatation of the renal pelvis), as well as spasm of the ureter. This produces pain, most commonly felt on the side (the area between the hip and ribs), lower abdomen and groin (a condition called renal colic). Renal colic can be associated with vomiting, pus in the urine, nausea, blood in the urine, fever, and painful urination.

Diagnosis

It is performed on information obtained from the clinical history, urinalysis, physical examination, and radiographic studies.

Ultrasound and blood tests can also help in the diagnosis.

Treatment

  • The first measure is to control pain, the use of drugs as drugs or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories .
  • In more severe cases, surgery may be required.
  • Some cases require more invasive surgeries.
  • Sometimes a tube (urethral catheter) can be placed in the ureter to relieve bothersome symptoms and prevent obstruction, it also helps to prevent urethral stricture after stone removal.
  • Kidney stones are a common cause of blood in the urine and pain in the abdomen, side or groin. Kidney stones occur in 1 in 20 people at some point in their lives.
  • Treatment includes, hydration and if there is a concurrent urinary infection, antibiotics.
  • The stones are formed in the area of ​​urine (pelvis) collection of the kidney and can vary in size from small to coral-like stones the size of the renal pelvis itself.
  • Factors predisposing to kidney stones include a recent reduction in fluid intake, increased exercise with dehydration, and medications that cause hyperuricemia(high uric acid).