Nephrolithiasis and kidney stones are medical terms used to refer to kidney stones.
The incidence of kidney stone formation in humans is quite high, it is estimated that ten of every 100 people can suffer from this disease. It is usually impossible to ignore these discomforts because their symptoms are obvious, but the exact meaning of the condition in terms of long-term health may depend on the type of stones or stones that develop.
Some of the different types of stones that occur in kidney stones include struvite stones , which are normally formed around the infective material in the kidneys, some people develop calcium or calcite stones, stones that may be due to the levels excessive calcium oxalate . People with high levels of uric acid may have uric acid stones, or sometimes the stones are composed mainly of certain amino acids (cystine). Other times the cause of the training is not entirely clear.
Main symptoms of renal lithiasis
The symptoms associated with lithiasis are often easy to detect. Many people feel significant pain that can occur just below the ribs or in the stomach, pelvis and groin. Urination tends to cause discomfort and people may feel constant urges to go to the bathroom. When stones are produced, the color of the urine may be different and may be brown or pink, or possibly bright red. When people have struvite stones, they can also show signs of kidney stones with fever and flu-like symptoms.
The diagnosis of renal lithiasis does not necessarily mean huge interventions, if infection is suspected, you can receive antibiotics. Large stones may not be able to pass and physicians may consider different invasive methods, including surgical removal or the use of radiofrequency to break and remove stones. For fairly small calculations, the usual treatment is to get the affected person to significantly increase their water intake and to administer relief medications such as analgesics to reduce discomfort, until the calculation is passed and they are expelled.
Treatment for nephrolithiasis
The treatment is adapted according to the type of calculation. The urine can be filtered and the stones can be collected for evaluation. Drinking six to eight glasses of water a day increases the flow of urine. People who are dehydrated or have severe nausea and vomiting may need intravenous fluids. Other treatment options include:
Pain relief may require narcotic medications. The presence of the infection requires treatment with antibiotics. Other medications include:
- Allopurinol for uric acid stones
- sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate
- phosphorus solutions
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy sound waves are used to break large stones so they can pass more easily through the ureters to the bladder. This procedure can be uncomfortable and may require light anesthesia. It can cause bruising of the abdomen and back and bleeding around the kidney and nearby organs.
Tunnel Surgery (percutaneous nephrolithotomy)
The stones are removed through a small incision in the back and may be necessary when:
- the stone causes the blockage and infection or is damaging the kidneys
- the stone has become too big to pass
- the pain can not be controlled
- ureteroscopy has been done
When a stone is stuck in the ureter or bladder, the doctor may use an instrument called a ureteroscope to remove it. A small cable with an attached camera is inserted into the urethra and passed into the bladder. A small cage is used to hook the calculation and remove it. It is then sent to the laboratory for analysis.