Pathophysiology: Definition and Areas Studied by This Important Branch of Medicine

It is a branch of medicine that deals with studying the phenomena that cause abnormal changes in the body during illness.

This is to identify the origins and stages of the formation of pathologies.

In summary, the pathophysiology of the disease is how the body functions and reacts when affected by this pathology, as well as analysis of the evolution of the body’s operations during the infection.

Pathophysiology (which can also be described as pathological physiology ) is very important in medicine; it is thanks to this branch of study that doctors can understand the origin of a particular disease.

They can also understand how it affects the human body and, especially, what is the most effective way to treat or prevent it.

Before determining the studies of pathophysiology, it is necessary to obtain knowledge of biology, histology, anatomy, and physiology. First, you have to know about the normal functioning of the body and then know its “non-functioning” or “abnormal functioning.”


Pathophysiology is a critical area of ​​study for nearly all health professional school programs (physicians, dentists, physician assistants, occupational therapy, physical therapy, nurse practitioners, radiation therapists, pharmacy, nursing, radiation sciences, chiropractic, and paramedics) in the United States. United States, Canada, and other countries.


Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease

The pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease is the death of dopaminergic neurons due to changes in biological activity in the brain concerning Parkinson’s disease (PD).

There are several proposed mechanisms for neuronal death in PD; however, not all are well understood.

Five main mechanisms for neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease include protein aggregation in Lewy bodies, impaired autophagy, changes in cell metabolism or mitochondrial function, neuroinflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) ​​breakdown resulting in vascular permeability.

Pathophysiology of heart failure

The pathophysiology of heart failure is a reduction in the efficiency of the heart muscle through damage or overload.

It can be caused by a large number of conditions, including myocardial infarction (in which the heart muscle is starved of oxygen and dies) and hypertension (which increases the force of contraction required to pump blood).

Also, amyloidosis (proteins are deposited in the heart muscle, causing it to harden).

Over time, these increases in workload will produce changes in the heart itself.

Pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis

The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS in which activated immune cells invade the central nervous system and cause inflammation, neurodegeneration, and tissue damage.

The underlying condition that causes this behavior is currently unknown.

Current research in neuropathology, neuroimmunology, neurobiology, neuroimaging, and clinical neurology supports the notion that MS is not a single disease but a spectrum.

Pathophysiology of hypertension

The pathophysiology of hypertension is that of a chronic disease characterized by elevated blood pressure. Hypertension can be classified by cause as essential (also known as primary or idiopathic) or secondary. About 90-95% of hypertension is essential hypertension.

Pathophysiology of HIV / AIDS

Upon acquisition of the virus, the pathophysiology of HIV / AIDS implies that the virus replicates internally and destroys helper T cells, which are required for almost all adaptive immune responses.

There is an initial period of influenza-like illness and then a latent, asymptomatic phase.

When the CD4 lymphocyte count falls below 200 cells/ml of blood, the HIV host has progressed to AIDS, a condition characterized by a deficiency in cell-mediated immunity and consequent increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and certain forms of cancer.

Pathophysiology of obesity

The pathophysiology of obesity involves many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in its development and maintenance.

This field of research had hardly been addressed until the leptin gene was discovered in 1994 by the laboratory of JM Friedman. These researchers postulated that leptin was a satiety factor.