Branches of Medicine: Know the Most Important Branches of This Extraordinary Science

As a career, you have a variety of specializations. Still, focusing on the most in-demand branches that help you as a future physician define your specialty, the list is as follows.

Bear in mind that depending on your country, some of the branches of medicine might get a different name. We refer to the central units offered in most countries in this sense.

Basic sciences

In general, the basic sciences are related to the study and training to be received by each student as part of their medical career.

Some of these are:

  • Anatomy: it is the branch of medicine and biology that deals with the shape and structure of the body and the relationship of its organs. It is also related to the morphology of animals and plants.
  • Biochemistry: it is the branch of chemistry that studies chemical behavior in living systems. It also applies to dentistry, veterinary medicine, and pharmacology, in which a biochemist could investigate a drug’s action.
  • Biostatistics: Also known as biometrics, it is the use of statistical tests to analyze biological data and the interpretation of its results.
  • Cytology, or cell biology, is the branch of scientific life that deals with the structure, composition, and function of cells and their interaction in the environment in which they exist.
  • Embryology: it is the branch of biology that studies the formation and early development of living organisms, from the fertilization stage of the ovum to the fetus.
  • Endocrinology: is the branch of medicine and biology related to the specific secretions called hormones and their effect on the endocrine organs that include the thyroid, adrenal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas, and testes.
  • Epidemiology is the study of the appearance, distribution, and control of diseases in populations within public health, caused by a virus, bacteria, or another factor.
  • Genetics: it is part of biology and refers to the study of genes, inheritance, and their effects on the legacy of specific traits and other biological processes.
  • Histology: is the branch of medicine and biology that studies the microscopic structure of cells and tissues under an optical microscope.
  • Immunology is considered the main branch of medical science that deals with all the physiological mechanisms of the integral biological defense of all organisms, called the immune system.
  • Microbiology: it is the science that studies microscopic organisms, specifically those that are under the power of the human eye.
  • Molecular biology: it is the branch of biology and chemistry and deals with the molecular study of the process developed in organisms.
  • Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. It is part of chemistry, engineering, mathematics, philosophy, and psychology.
  • Nutrition is the study of dietary requirements for people. Knowing the composition of foods will help prevent health problems.
  • Pathology is the study of disease, its causes, mechanisms, and effects on organisms.
  • Pharmacology studies drugs and their origin, nature, properties, and effects on living organisms. It is related to the biological effects caused by drugs in organisms.
  • Physiology is the branch of medicine and is closely related to anatomy; physiology deals with the activities and processes of living organisms and mechanical and physical functions.
  • Toxicology: is closely related to medicine, chemistry, and biology. It is the study of nature, the effects, the detection of poisons, and the treatment of poisoning.

Medical specialties

Once students have completed medical school, it is common for them to wish to further their studies by pursuing a specialty of medicine within surgical medicine, internal medicine, diagnostic or clinical specialties.

Diagnostic specialties

These specialties are generally carried out within a clinical laboratory, where the investigation and detection procedures are also performed, taking a transfusion of counts and cell therapy.

Some of the specialties are:


  • Allergology: refers to studying allergies and hypersensitivity disorders in the immune system.
  • Angiology is the study of the circulatory and lymphatic system, its arteries, vessels, veins, and their diseases.
  • Cardiology – deals with heart disorders as a subspecialty of internal medicine and, at the same time, is divided into congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, and electrophysiology.
  • Cellular pathology is the study of cellular alterations in the disease.
  • Clinical chemistry: is related to diagnosis by biochemical analysis of blood, body fluids, and tissues.
  • Microbiology: clinical is related to the in vitro diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
  • Immunology: clinical is a broad branch of biomedical science that encompasses the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.
  • Endocrinology: as a subspecialty of internal medicine, it refers to diagnosing and treating endocrine organs.
  • Gastroenterology: is part of internal medicine and includes the study of the gastrointestinal tract through the digestive system, diseases, and treatments.
  • Hematology is the study of blood diseases, including leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma.
  • Interventional radiology: it is an area of ​​specialty in radiology that uses various radiological techniques.
  • Nephrology: is a branch of internal medicine that studies kidney function, treatments, and diseases that include dialysis and kidney transplantation.
  • Nuclear medicine: is a branch of medicine specializing in radiology in the use of radionuclides for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
  • Ophthalmology: deals with disorders and surgery of the visual pathways closely related to the anatomy and physiology of the eye.
  • Pediatrics:  deals with children’s health care up to the average age of adolescents of 18 years.
  • Plastic, reconstructive, and aesthetic surgery: It is a branch of internal medicine and refers to all operations to restore body parts to appear normal.
  • Transfusion medicine is related to the transfusion of blood and blood components and the maintenance of a “blood bank.”
  • Urology is within the surgical and internal specialty and is closely related to nephrology; it studies diseases of the male reproductive system and the urinary tract.

Clinical specialties

As part of the medical specialties, we can mention the main things considered worldwide.

These are the following:

  • In anesthesiology (AE) or Anesthesia (BE), an anesthesiologist administers anesthesia and monitors patients under anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures.
  • Dermatology: it is the branch of medicine and the unique specialty that unites medical and surgical specialties. These are diseases and disorders of the skin and its appendages.
  • Emergency medicine: is the branch of medicine that deals with the care and treatment of a condition that results from an accident or other urgent need.
  • Hospital medicine: is the general medical care of hospitalized patients. Doctors whose primary professional focus is hospital medicine are called hospitalists.
  • Internal medicine: is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of many medical conditions for adults.
  • Naturopathic Medicine: It is a system of medicine that believes in the natural healing forces of the body.
  • Neurology: is the branch of science that deals with the structure, functioning, and diseases of the nervous system.
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology (often abbreviated as Ob / Gyn): is the field of medicine dedicated to the specific conditions of women.
  • Palliative care is an approach to chronic, life-threatening illnesses, especially at the end of life.

Interdisciplinary fields

Interdisciplinary fields include subspecialties of medicine.

Some of these are:

  • Aeronautical medicine: applies medical knowledge to human activities to prevent diseases in pilots and crews as patients in the field of aviation.
  • Bioethics is the branch of ethics that studies moral values ​​in biomedical sciences.
  • Biomedical engineering: is a field that deals with applying engineering principles to medical practice.
  • Clinical pharmacology: is a field of medicine that studies the effects of drugs on people.
  • Conservation medicine studies the connection between human and animal health and environmental conditions.
  • Diving medicine (or hyperbaric medicine): is the prevention and treatment of problems related to diving.
  • Forensic medicine: is the branch of medical science that uses medical knowledge for legal purposes.
  • Medical informatics, medical informatics, medical information, and health: are moderately recent fields dealing with the application of computers and information technology to medicine.
  • Nosology is the branch of medical science that deals with the classification of diseases.
  • Pharmacogenomics is the study of the genetic variation underlying the differential response to drugs.
  • Sports medicine: deals with the treatment and preventive care of athletes, amateurs, and professionals
  • Therapeutics: it is the branch of medicine related to the treatment of disease.
  • Travel medicine or emporiatrics: it is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of an international nature.

Other specialties are:

  • Psychiatry.
  • Pneumonology.
  • Neonatology.
  • Hebiatry.
  • Traumatology.
  • Geriatrics.
  • The proctology.