ACV = Stroke, is a cerebral vascular disease.
An ischemic stroke is a lack of blood in a brain region due to a blockage in a brain blood vessel, which can cause serious consequences or even death of the person if not rescued in time.
Transient ischemic stroke is a less severe type of ischemic stroke and occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted for a short period. The symptoms of transient ischemic stroke are felt for a short time, between 1 and 2 hours, disappearing within 24 hours.
Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke
The difference between ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke are:
Ischemic stroke: occurs due to a lack of blood in the brain.
Hemorrhagic stroke: occurs due to extravasation of blood in the brain.
The symptoms are similar in both types of stroke; patients can feel the pressure inside the head because of the bleeding.
The treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke is different. In the first case, the goal is to resolve the blockage of the artery that causes the stroke, while in the second case, the treatment is done to prevent cerebral hemorrhage.
The symptoms of a stroke
The symptoms of a stroke develop in a matter of minutes and can be:
- Extreme headaches.
- The loss of strength or paralysis of one side of the body.
- Difficulty speaking and lack of understanding.
- Difficulty swallowing
- Visual changes, dizziness, and crooked mouth.
Several risk factors for ischemic strokes include hypertension, cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and overweight.
The diagnosis of ischemic stroke can be made by analyzing the patient’s symptoms or by imaging tests such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.
Causes of ischemic stroke
The causes of ischemic stroke are related to changes in blood flow. They can be atherosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, heart valve diseases, endocarditis, alterations in blood clotting, heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction. Low blood pressure can also cause an ischemic stroke since it reduces blood flow to the brain and causes narrowing of the cerebral arteries.
The treatment of ischemic stroke may include using alteplase (thrombolytic) drugs, which destroy thrombus, aspirin, and clopidogrel.
Surgery can be indicated as a treatment for ischemic stroke in severe cases and aims to remove thrombi from the arteries, relieve blood pressure, or revascularize the streets.