Foveolar Hyperplasia: Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

It increases the growth of cells in organs and the formation of neoplasms.

Hyperplasia can affect any organ of a person, but there is often hyperplasia of the stomach.

Therefore, with any suspicion of hyperplasia of the stomach, you need to see a doctor, take all tests, and in case of illness, immediately start treatment.

It appears more frequently as a consequence of cell division, that is, in fact, due to its normal reproduction, but in large and excessive amounts. There may be hyperplasia in the organ’s tissues, mucosa, or the epithelium.

In addition, with hyperplasia, not only does the number of cells increase, but when they are neglected, the changes begin within the cells themselves, and their structure changes irreversibly, which can subsequently lead to the transformation of altered cells into malignant tumors.

What is foveolar hyperplasia of the stomach?

Foveolar hyperplasia of the stomach is the proliferation of epithelial cells in the mucous membrane of stomach tissues.

Foveolar hyperplasia of the stomach can occur against the background of chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and is classified as a disease that often does not cause the formation of benign or malignant tumors.


Usually, the onset of the disease occurs asymptomatically in the early stages and is called an “endoscopic finding,” as it is detected randomly by a doctor.

Despite being asymptomatic in the early stages, foveolar hyperplasia of the stomach is considered the initial stage of the appearance of hyperplastic polyps.

Causes of foveolar hyperplasia

  • Hormonal disorders in the body.
  • Neglected chronic gastritis, chronic inflammation in the stomach and mucous membrane tissues.
  • Untreated gastric infections.
  • Violations of intrasecretory work of the mucosa.
  • Abnormal nerve regulation in the stomach.
  • The action in the stomach of various carcinogens also promotes cell proliferation.
  • Some types of gastric hyperplasia can develop due to Helicobacter pylori in the body.
  • Hereditary predisposition to the disease.

Symptoms of foveolar hyperplasia

Often, hyperplasia of the stomach is not accompanied at first by any apparent symptoms; this is the danger of the disease. A person does not even suspect a progressive disease until it passes into a chronic and neglected state in the absence of any symptoms.

Over time, hyperplasia of the stomach begins to be characterized by the primary signs of the disease:

  • Severe pain, resulting in involuntary contraction of the muscles in the patient, sometimes temporary; in chronic cases, it can be constant.
  • Possibly upset stomach, digestive disorders.
  • Sometimes there are signs of anemia.

Do not delay the examination; if the pain begins to appear at night when the stomach is empty, this may be the first sign of hyperplasia of the stomach.

In the first symptoms, it is necessary to consult a doctor; you never need to self-medicate, much less let the disease flow by itself, because it is fraught with aggravations and negative consequences.

The ideal option is to visit the doctor every half year for diagnosis so as not to miss the moment of the onset of the disease and cure it at an early stage.

Other types of stomach hyperplasia

Focal gastric hyperplasia

Focal hyperplasia of the stomach is an early form of the polyp, which manifests itself as a benign tumor in one of the sectors of the stomach, in the so-called “heart,” hence its name.

It can have a different size, generally resembling a small extension, with a modified structure, especially it can be considered in a study with contrast when the paint hits the hyperplasia foci, they immediately change color and stand out against the background of the normal tissues.

The outgrowths can resemble a tuber or have a leg; they can be single or multiple. They are also called warty hyperplasia. Most often, they transform from erosion of the mucous membrane. They are revealed during endoscopic examination.

Hyperplasia of the antrum of the stomach

The antral part of the stomach is most often prone to the appearance of hyperplasia since, first of all, it constitutes almost a third of the entire abdomen; it is located in the lower part and goes to 12 points.

Its primary function is to grind, digest, and push food further, so it is more exposed to burdens and disease than most other departments.

The absence of symptoms at an early stage and the course of the disease in the antrum section are the same as in any other; the differences are only in the appearance of the outgrowths. Often, neoplasms in the antral part of the stomach are multiple, small growths.

In the study of morphology, experts identify the elongation of the wells and the presence of broad branching ridges.

Lymphochloricular hyperplasia of the stomach

Lymphoproligolytic hyperplasia of the stomach is a neoplasm of cells in the follicular layer of the gastric mucosa. There is such hyperplasia of the stomach mainly due to various violations of hormonal processes, inappropriate intrasecretory work, and violations of correlations.

The products of the decomposition of the tissues, which do not decompose in the usual way, can also cause the appearance of lymphoid-follicular hyperplasia of the stomach.

In addition, the clastogenic and carcinogenic substances with which the body contacts also affect the appearance of the disease.

This disease can develop due to negative influences on internal tissues, disorders of hormonal processes, nervous regulation, correlative connections, and improper intrasecretory work.

Specific products of tissue breakdown, which do not degrade in the usual way,

Lymph-follicular hyperplasia of the stomach, combined with gastritis, is very dangerous for human life. Such a compound can lead to the development of malignant tumors.

Hyperplasia of the gastroepithelial epithelium

Histochemical examination and electron microscopy reveal functional changes in the activity of cellular elements of the mucous membrane.

Mainly these changes are expressed in the cells of the gastrointestinal epithelium of the stomach; they are enlarged in size. They contain mucin, which fills the cell and pushes the nucleus to its base.

In addition to the functional changes, there is intraventricular hyperplasia of the stomach, which leads to the appearance of new gastric pits, giving them a corkscrew shape. In symptomatology, it is also challenging to diagnose; it is better to seek the advice of a specialist.

Foci of hyperplasia of the stomach

Focal gastric hyperplasia is polyps that appear due to a prolonged inflammatory process in tissues, epithelial cells, and mucous membranes, with marked proliferation and dystrophy.

Usually, such changes are made locally, which allows them to be easily identified with the help of analysis and quickly eliminated, preventing their reproduction and aggravation of the body’s condition.

The stomach has different parts in its structure; it is both antral and cordial, the lower part of the stomach and the body. And unfortunately, all these departments can be susceptible to various diseases, including hyperplasia of the stomach.

Lymphoid hyperplasia of the antrum of the stomach

Lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach is an excess of lymphocyte neoplasia in the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are significant for the body; they suppress the reproduction of viruses and bacteria and the spread of poor-quality processes.

Lymphoid hyperplasia is an inflammatory process involving the lymph nodes and their enlargement and not just a reaction to the inflammation of some other organ.

By locating enlarged lymph nodes, it is possible to identify the foci of the appearance of serious diseases. For example, lymph node hyperplasia in the groin can lead to malignant tumors in the legs or cancerous metastases to the genitals.

Lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa

Lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa is a pseudolymphoma lesion of the stomach, it often occurs in the context of a chronic ulcer, but there may be a thickening of the mucous membrane and excessive growth of knots that can penetrate the mucosa and even its deeper spheres.

The formation of polyps in the mucosa is also possible. Lymphoid hyperplasia is challenging to diagnose; it is characterized by the absence of atypical cells, the presence of signs of stromal fibrosis, and the modular character of the formations in the submucosa and muscular layers.

Epithelial hyperplasia of the stomach

Epithelial hyperplasia of the stomach is an excessive formation of the glandular tissue of the endometrium, which manifests itself in its thickening and increase in volume.

The hyperplasia of the stomach glands is revealed in the form of small polypoid growths, mostly round or oval, surrounded by an altered mucous membrane at the cellular level.

The polyp’s body is made up of epithelial elements or overly overgrown epithelium and vascular-rich connective tissue and the leg, which is the continuation of the adjacent mucosa and submucosa layer.

The epithelial elements of benign polyps are similar to the surrounding tissue; the epithelium is not significantly altered.

In some places, the glands can expand into the cystic cavity. The glands never go beyond the muscle membrane, no matter how extensive the glandular hyperplasia is.

Polypoid hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa

The polyp is a small tumor in the tissues or mucous membrane; it can be “sedentary” or located in a pedicle, be unique or have a different morphological structure.

Polyps with hyperplasia of the stomach can appear in any part of the stomach; the causes are standard – a neglected stomach disease, although many scientists consider its occurrence unknown.

According to statistics, most of the time, polypoid hyperplasia predisposes people after 50 years, but unfortunately, with each year, the statistics show that polyps began to surprise the younger generation. It is often removed surgically.

Diagnosis of foveolar hyperplasia

Since it is almost impossible to diagnose gastric hyperplasia without special tests and examinations, doctors use several specific studies:

X-ray shows the presence of polyps in the stomach; you can see their contours, shape, whether you have a leg, what contours, even or intermittent. In addition to polyps, you can see a tumor, only its outlines.

A more detailed study of fibro gastro duodenoscopy: a special device is used to examine the inner walls of the stomach. It can specifically consider all tumors and distinguish the polyp from cancer and other growths.

A biopsy is performed after the above tests since this study aims to establish the malignancy of the tumor and its morphological composition.

Treatment of foveolar hyperplasia

First, and for the treatment and prevention of gastric hyperplasia, it is necessary to establish control over nutrition, as it is often the use of fatty, severe, and low-quality food in large quantities, an improper diet, and a sedentary lifestyle. It is the first cause of problems.

To prepare a therapeutic diet, it is better to contact a nutritionist; he will do a blood test and help collect those foods that will have a beneficial effect on your stomach and indicate what better to stay away from.

To eliminate the disease early, doctors prescribe drugs, of course, depending on the cause, most hormonal drugs.

If suddenly diet and medications do not help, you have to repeat the treatment, or a surgical operation is prescribed to remove the affected tissues or polyps.

In cases where gastric hyperplasia is not chronic and the reasons for its appearance are clear, the treatment has a beneficial effect, and the person recovers.

Therefore, always, not only with pain and discomfort, you need to see a doctor, and at least once a year, undergo a complete examination to protect yourself from just diagnosed diseases and prevent their occurrence.