Diet Diabetes: Objective, Recommended Foods, Foods Not Allowed, Sample Menu and Risks

It should start with the planning of the menu, then make the lists of food exchange and finally the carbohydrate count.

A diet for diabetes creates a healthy eating plan that helps control blood sugar levels.

A diabetes diet means that you should eat healthy foods in moderate amounts and stick to the regular meal times.

This eating plan is healthy, it is rich in natural nutrients and low in fat and caloric content. The key elements are fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

It is the best diet plan for most people even if they do not have diabetes.


When you have diabetes or have a predisposition to the disease, you must develop a plan to control the level of sugars in your blood (glucose).

As well as controlling weight, avoiding the risk factors of heart disease , high blood pressure and high levels of fats in the blood.

When excess calories and fats are consumed, the body responds by causing an abnormal increase in blood glucose and if it is not controlled, serious problems can occur.

A high level of blood glucose causes hyperglycemia, which will cause long-term obstacles, such as damage to the nervous system, kidney function and heart conditions.

To help maintain blood glucose levels in a normal range, healthy foods should be chosen and dietary habits changed.

Most people suffering from type 2 diabetes, a weight loss can help in controlling blood sugar levels and confer a number of benefits to improve health.

The diet for diabetes provides a nutritious way to achieve the goal safely.

Recommended foods

A selection of calories should be made with nutritious foods, since the patient’s health will depend on the quality and quantity of foods rich in fiber, healthy carbohydrates, proteins and fats, such as the following:

Healthy carbohydrates

In digestion, simple carbohydrates (sugars) and complex carbohydrates (starches) are broken down into glucose, the carbohydrates that are healthiest to obtain the glucose the body needs are:

Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes such as beans, peas and lentils, as well as dairy products with little fat content.

Foods rich in fiber

Fiber includes those particles present in foods of plant origin that can not be absorbed or digested by the body. Fiber controls the way in which the body digests food.

Fiber-rich foods can include vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes such as beans, peas and lentils, whole grain flours and wheat bran.


Fish is a good food with benefits to the heart and should be consumed at least 2 times a week. It is usually an excellent alternative for the consumption of proteins since they have less fat than meats and poultry.

Among the most recommended fish are: Cod, tuna and halibut because they have less total fat or saturated fat and cholesterol. Pork should be consumed lean.

Fish such as salmon, mackerel, tuna, sardines and the so-called blue fish have a greater amount of omega-3 fatty acids, which are healthy for the heart.


In small portions any diet should contain fat.

Foods with polyunsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats help to reduce cholesterol levels.

The foods that have this type of fats include avocados, almonds, walnuts, olives and olive, canola and peanut oils.

Food not allowed

Having diseases such as diabetes increases your risk of heart disease and CVA by accelerating the blockage and hardening of the arteries.

Some foods can cause high levels of sugar, cholesterol and triglycerides and blockage and hardening of the arteries of the circulatory system, acting against the goals of diabetic regimens.

Saturated fats

Milk products with high content in animal proteins and fat such as beef, sausages such as bacon, among others, contain saturated fats.

Grasas trans

This type of trans fat is found in processed rolls, shortening, and margarines.


Foods that are sources of cholesterol include high-fat dairy products and animal proteins, liver, egg yolks and other organ meats.


The sodium or salt content should be less than 2.3 mg per day. However, if you have high blood pressure you should reduce your intake to 1.5 mg of sodium per day.

The diet

A diet for diabetics is based on making three meals a day at regular intervals.

Helping the body to better use the insulin that is produced or received through a treatment.

The method of the plate

The American Diabetes Association offers a 7-step method for diet planning.

It focuses on eating more vegetables, you must fill half of the plate with non-starchy vegetables such as carrots, spinach and tomatoes.

Also fill a room with protein, such as fish or lean pork and the last part of the dish with a food with whole grains or starch.

Add a portion of fruit or dairy, water or coffee / tea without sugar.

Counting carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, and therefore have the greatest impact on the level of sugar in the blood.

To control the blood sugar level, you should consume approximately equal amounts of carbohydrate-rich foods every day, at regular intervals.

Especially when they have prescribed foods to control diabetes.

The system of exchange lists

Exchange lists are established by categories, such as sources of protein, carbohydrates and fats.

A portion in each category is called an “election.”

It has approximately the same amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and calories, and produces a similar effect on blood glucose, as a portion of all foods belonging to the same category.

Then, for example, you can choose to eat half of a large ear of corn or 1/3 cup of pasta already cooked for the choice of the category starch.

Glucose level

Some people with diabetes use the glycemic index to make food choices, especially when it comes to carbohydrates.

With this method, foods that are rich in carbohydrates are classified according to their effect on blood glucose levels.

Example menu

When planning a menu, the size and activity level of the individual must be taken into account.

As shown below, the following menu is for a person who needs between 1,200 and 1,600 daily calories.


  • 1 medium slice of wholemeal bread, with 2 tsp of unsweetened gelatin, 1/2 cup of wheat cereal with low-fat milk (1 percent), a serving of fresh fruit and coffee.


  • Pita bread with cheese and vegetables, a medium apple with 2 tablespoons of almond butter and water


  • Salmon, 1 1/2 teaspoons of oil, two small baked potatoes, 1/2 cup of carrots, iced tea without sugar and salad with 1 1/2 cups of spinach, 1/2 cup of tomato, 2 teaspoons of olive oil , 1/4 cup of chopped pepper, 1 1/2 teaspoons of red wine vinegar.


  • 2 1/2 cups popcorn or an orange with 1/2 cup low-fat cottage cheese 1 percent.

The result of following a healthy eating plan is the best way to keep blood glucose levels under control and to prevent complications from diabetes.

And if you also need to lose weight, you can adapt to specific objectives. In addition to controlling the disease, a diet for diabetes also offers many other benefits.

Since this type of diet includes large amounts of fruits, vegetables and fiber, it is likely that the risk of cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer will decrease significantly.

And by consuming low-fat dairy products, you can reduce the risk of problems with bone mass in the future.


It is important to develop a diabetes diet that the doctor is consulted to schedule a regimen that suits the patient’s lifestyle.

It must take into account the activity that develops, age, food habits and products that are on the market in the region where the patient lives.

It must be taken into account if the individual suffers from other diseases or if he is prohibited from consuming any type of food.

You must use healthy foods, program and control the portions, to administer the blood glucose level.

If an adequate regimen is not followed, there is a risk of causing fluctuations in blood sugar levels that can lead to more serious complications.