The term is a combination of the word “chorea” and the word “athetosis.”
Chorea and athetosis are two irregular movements that often occur in combination with the same disorder.
Chorea is characterized by rapid, short, rigorous, unpredictable, and irregular muscle jerks, such as restlessness or movements of the arms and legs.
Chorea mainly affects the face, extremities, or trunk of the body.
Athetosis is a movement disorder in which the patient has slow twisting movements with forced uncoordination involving the extremities.
These movements can also affect the facial muscles.
Choreoathetosis is a movement disorder that causes involuntary twitching or twisting, which commonly develops due to sudden infections, muscle movement disorders, or injuries.
Choreoathetosis can occur chronically or acutely. It can be transitory or a permanent phenomenon in a patient’s life.
Choreoathetosis can also affect the patient’s limb movements, the ability to speak, change position, and walk.
Usually, the movements are involuntary and always occur in the human body.
However, sometimes these movements become chronic and disabling disorders, representing a severe condition.
While some cases of choreoathetosis are short-lived, the more severe episodes can persist for years. The condition can occur suddenly, or it can develop over time.
Choreoathetosis can affect people of any age or gender. People 15 to 35 years of age are more likely to have this disorder.
Causes of choreoathetosis
Choreoathetosis is often associated as a symptom of other triggering conditions or disorders. Possible causes include:
- Side effects of certain medications.
- Hyperthyroidism .
- Systemic lupus
- Wilson’s disease.
- Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.
- Trauma or injuries.
- Cerebral palsy.
- Huntington’s disease.
- Tourette syndrome.
- Wilson’s disease.
- Kernicterus is a type of brain damage in newborns with jaundice.
- Chorea gravidarum.
- Corea de Sydenham.
- Ataxia telangiectasia.
There are also congenital forms of choreoathetosis.
Severe choreoathetosis is a complication in 10% of children with congenital heart disease after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and profound hypothermia.
Profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest are not essential factors in pathophysiology, but they are often associated.
Symptoms of choreoathetosis
There are easily identifiable symptoms of choreoathetosis; it can affect posture, ability to walk, and daily movement. The most severe cases can cause permanent disability.
Choreoathetosis patients have difficulty controlling their muscles and cannot control how their body moves.
The symptoms of choreoathetosis are easily recognizable and include:
- Muscle tightness
- Involuntary spasms
- Fixed hand position.
- Uncontrollable muscle jerks.
- Abnormal movements of the body or specific parts of the body.
- Constant twisting movements.
Choreoathetosis episodes can occur randomly. Certain factors can also trigger an attack, such as caffeine, alcohol, or stress.
Before an episode, you may feel your muscles begin to tense or have other physical symptoms. Attacks can last from 10 seconds to over an hour.
Clinical features are the only basis for diagnosis. MRI results are expected during acute illness.
Treatment of choreoathetosis
Treatment for choreoathetosis will depend on the physical condition of the patient.
There is no cure for choreoathetosis. Treatment options focus on managing the symptoms of this condition. Treatment also depends on the underlying cause.
After a thorough review of the patient’s medical history, the doctor may recommend medications to reduce or eliminate episodes of choreoathetosis. These medications are intended to relax muscles and relieve pain.
Standard drug options for choreoathetosis include:
- Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant to treat nerve pain and prevent seizures.
- Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant to treat and prevent attacks.
- Muscle relaxants.
Smaller doses of medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, can effectively treat choreoathetosis. However, these medications should be administered according to the patient’s physical condition.
Sedation prevents exhaustion in severely affected children. Choreoathetosis is often refractory to drug therapy. Clonazepam and levetiracetam may help reduce movement.
Surgery, although invasive, can also help reduce episodes of choreoathetosis. Doctors may recommend deep brain stimulation, which places the electrodes in the part of the brain that controls muscle movements.
The electrodes are connected to a device that delivers electrical pulses and blocks tremors. While this procedure has been successful, it carries the risk of infection and requires replacing the surgical battery over time.
Research continues to develop therapies to cure choreoathetosis rather than just manage the symptoms of this disease.
Prognosis of choreoathetosis
Choreoathetosis is considered a chronic and more dangerous movement disorder, as this condition directly affects the muscles, joints, bones, and tissues.
Patients suffering from choreoathetosis have to struggle to move correctly and naturally.
Choreoathetosis can be very serious and can cause permanent disability in the patient.
While there is no cure for choreoathetosis, different treatment options can address the symptoms.
The prescription medication instructions should be followed so that symptoms do not worsen.
Making changes at home can also improve your quality of life. If choreoathetosis affects daily movement, the house should be adapted to prevent injury or further trauma from slips and falls.