It is known as a protein hormone whose mission is to narrow the blood vessels.
The hormone Angiotensin allows blood pressure to be maintained stably and the balance of fluids in the body.
How else can AngiotensinAngiotensin be known?
The name of this hormone can be expressed in Roman numbers, describing itself as angiotensin I-IV. This helps to differentiate the diverse variety of hormones that the organism possesses and the variants of the same hormone, as well as when it is uncontrolled or suffers from something unusual.
How is it produced?
The liver creates and releases a protein called angiotensinogen. This is broken down by renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, to form AngiotensinAngiotensin I.
It is unknown that this form of the hormone has a particular biological function in itself, but it is an essential precursor of AngiotensinAngiotensin II.
As it passes into the bloodstream through the lungs and kidneys, it is further metabolized to produce angiotensin II by the action of the angiotensin-converting enzyme.
After binding to its receptor, which is found in most tissues of the body, angiotensin II has effects on:
- Blood vessels: to cause constriction (narrowing) of them and, therefore, increase blood pressure.
- Nerves (neurological): generates the sensation of thirst and desire for salt and stimulates the release of the antidiuretic hormone from the pituitary gland and the noradrenaline of the sympathetic nerves.
- Adrenal glands: to stimulate the production of aldosterone, which causes the body to retain sodium and lose potassium from the kidneys.
- The kidneys: it helps increase the retention of sodium and alter the way the kidneys filter the blood. This increases the reabsorption of water in the kidney to expand blood volume and pressure.
How is AngiotensinAngiotensin activated?
There is an increase in renin production if there is a decrease in sodium levels and blood pressure, which the kidneys detect.
In addition, low blood pressure can stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to increase renin production, which results in increased conversion of angiotensinogen to AngiotensinAngiotensin I.
However, since AngiotensinAngiotensin I must be converted to the more active angiotensin II hormone by the converting enzyme before it can function, this allows control over the metabolism of AngiotensinAngiotensin.
Other hormones also activate the renin-angiotensin system, including corticosteroids, estrogens, and thyroid hormones.
On the other hand, natriuretic peptides (produced in the heart and central nervous system) can prevent the renin-angiotensin system from increasing the loss of sodium in the urine.
Body effects before the excess of this hormone
Too much angiotensin II is a common problem that causes an excess of fluid retained by the body and, ultimately, an increase in blood pressure.
This often occurs in heart failure, where it is also believed that AngiotensinAngiotensin contributes to the growth in heart size.
To combat these adverse effects, drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and blockers of angiotensin receptor blockers are used in the clinic, although these have side effects and can lead to excessive potassium retention.
Body effects in the face of Angiotensin
The control of sodium and potassium plasma concentrations, and the regulation of volume and blood pressure, are all hormonal mechanisms affected by low levels of AngiotensinAngiotensin.
The absence of this hormone can be associated with potassium retention, sodium loss, decreased fluid retention (increased urine output), and low blood pressure.
What are angiotensin receptor blockers, and how do they work?
Angiotensin II is a potent chemical that forms in the blood and causes the muscles surrounding the blood vessels to constrict, thus narrowing the vessels.
This narrowing increases the pressure inside the vessels and can cause high blood pressure ( hypertension ).
Angiotensin II receptor blockers are drugs that block the action of this hormone by preventing it from binding to its receptors in the muscles surrounding blood vessels.
As a result, the blood vessels increase in size (they dilate), and the blood pressure is reduced.
Reducing blood pressure makes it easier for the heart to pump blood and improves heart failure. In addition, the progression of kidney disease caused by high blood pressure or diabetes slows down.