Year: Definition, Structure, Associated Conditions, Diagnosis and Treatments

It is the opening where the gastrointestinal tract ends and leaves the body. It begins in the lower part of the rectum and is the last portion of the colon (large intestine).


The anorectal line separates the anus from the rectum.

A hard tissue called fascia surrounds it and links it to nearby structures.

Circular muscles form the wall of the anus and keep it closed. The glands release fluid in the anus to keep its surface moist.

A band of plate-shaped muscles, called levator ani muscles, surrounds it and forms the pelvis floor. A network of veins lines the skin of the anus.

Associated conditions

This part of the body may suffer from the following conditions:

Internal hemorrhoids: swollen veins inside the anus or rectum. These can not be seen from outside the body but can swell and cause pain when sitting or defecating.


External hemorrhoids: blood vessels that swell near the opening of the anus or bulge on the outside, sometimes crack, and may begin to bleed at the time of defecation. If they become inflamed very often, they can leave a hole in the anus, hindering the mobility and rest of the body.

Anal cancer: it is a rare type of cancer. This condition can occur or be generated by the human papillomavirus.

Anal herpes: anal sex can spread the herpes viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2. Symptoms include painful sores around the anus that appear and disappear.

Anal warts can appear in him or around the anus, a consequence of the papillomavirus.

Anal fistula: an abnormal channel that develops between the anus and the skin of the buttocks. Inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis ) or previous surgery are common causes.

Anal fissure: a tear in that area, often caused by constipation. Pain, especially with bowel movements, is the main symptom.

Anal abscess: An infection in the soft tissue around the anus. Antibiotics and surgical drainage may be required to treat a spot in this area effectively.

Anal itching: Itching in or around the anus is a common problem. In most cases, no serious cause is responsible.

Proctalgia fugax: sudden and severe pain in this area that lasts seconds or minutes and then disappears.

Constipation: The difficulty of defecating is common and can cause anal pain, anal fissures, and hemorrhaging hemorrhoids.

Anal bleeding: bright red blood from the anus sometimes comes from hemorrhoids but requires evaluation to rule out a more severe cause.


Because it is a part of the body, it must be checked or checked with a specialist doctor regularly to avoid developing conditions that can shorten the quality of life in the short or long term.

The evaluations can be:

Physical exam: A doctor can inspect the outside of the anus and insert a gloved finger to detect abnormal areas inside the anus.

Sigmoidoscopy: an endoscope (a flexible tube with a lighted camera on its tip) inserts into the anus and moves to the colon. Sigmoidoscopy can only reach a part of the colon.

Colonoscopy: An endoscope is inserted into the anus, and the entire colon is seen to detect problems.

Fistulography: a fluid is injected that helps improve the image’s contrast in an abnormal opening in or near the anus, and x-rays are taken. Fistulography can detect a strange connection ( fistula ) between the anus and the skin.


Treat the various conditions that can have in this area of ​​the body are:

Antibiotics: can be used to fight anal infections caused by bacteria.

Antiviral medications: Medications such as acyclovir (Zovirax), famciclovir (Famvir), and valaciclovir (Valtrex) are used to treat anal infections caused by herpes viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2.

Incision and drainage: severe infections of the skin (abscesses) in or around the anus may require this surgical procedure to drain the infected fluid.

Surgery: Anal cancer, anal warts, abscesses, or fistula may require surgery to correct the problem.

Anal warts treatments: doctors can use surgery, freezing ( cryotherapy ), a laser or heat probe, or other treatments to remove warts from the anus.

Stool softeners: constipation can cause hard stools and painful stools. Over-the-counter or prescribed stool softeners can alleviate these symptoms.

Fiber: Increasing fiber in the diet or taking fiber supplements can improve constipation and reduce bleeding from hemorrhoids.

Hemorrhoid cream: topical or over-the-counter medications can relieve the itching and discomfort caused by hemorrhoids.

Hemorrhoid bands: A doctor ties the rubber bands around the external hemorrhoids, causing the tissue to die slowly and fall off.

Procedures for hemorrhoids: a doctor can use a laser, heat probe, injections, or other treatment to destroy the hemorrhoids and reduce symptoms.

Cream with steroids: itching in the anus often responds to over-the-counter creams that contain hydrocortisone or similar steroid medication.