Thoracic pain comes in many forms, ranging from a string to dull pain.
In some instances, the pain travels up the neck and then radiates through the back of the jaw or down to one or both arms.
Many problems can cause chest pain. Most pain can be life-threatening, involving the heart or lungs.
Because it is difficult to pinpoint the exact cause of this type of pain, it is best to seek medical help.
Chest pain related to the heart.
While chest pain is usually attributed to heart disease, many people with heart disease say they experience a vague discomfort for which “pain” does not seem to be an adequate description.
In general, chest discomfort related to a heart attack or other heart problem can be or is associated with:
- Pressure feeling of fullness or pressure in the chest.
- Crushing or throbbing pain radiates to the back, neck, jaw, shoulders, and arms – especially the left arm.
- Pain that lasts more than a few minutes worsens with activity, goes away, returns, or varies in intensity.
- Breathing difficulty
- Cold perspiration
- Dizziness or exhaustion.
- Nausea or vomiting
Causes related to the heart
Heart attack . It is a consequence caused by a blood clot that obstructs blood flow to the heart muscle.
Angina . The thick plates are stored progressively in the internal walls of the arteries responsible for transferring blood to the heart.
These plaques narrow the arteries and limit the blood supply to the heart.
Aortic dissection . This deadly condition involves the main artery that runs from the heart (aorta). If the layers of this vessel separate, the blood will be forced between the layers and may cause a rupture in the aorta.
Pericarditis This condition produces an inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart, usually causing intense pain that gets worse when you inhale or when lying down.
Acidity . A burning sensation in the back of the sternum occurs when stomach acid rises into the esophagus and causes pain in the chest.
Swallowing disorders . Disorders of the esophagus can make it very difficult and even painful to swallow food.
Gallbladder or problems of the pancreas. Gallstones or swelling of the gallbladder or pancreas causes abdominal pain that radiates to the chest.
Causes related to the lungs
Pulmonary embolism . This cause of chest pain occurs when a clot lodges in a pulmonary artery, blocking blood flow.
Pleurisy . When the membrane surrounding the lungs becomes inflamed, it causes pain in the chest, which worsens when you inhale or cough.
Collapsed lung . It usually starts suddenly and can last for hours, and occurs when there is air leakage in the space between the lung and the ribs.
Pulmonary hypertension . High blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood to the lungs (pulmonary hypertension) can cause chest pain.
Tests and diagnosis
Record the electrical activity of the heart through electrodes attached to the skin.
Because the injured heart muscle does not transport electrical impulses properly, the ECG can state that a heart attack has started or is ongoing.
They verify the increase in certain enzymes that are usually found in the heart muscle.
The deterioration of the cells of the heart allows these enzymes have lost during hours in the blood.
It allows doctors to check the condition of the lungs and the size and shape of the heart and blood vessels.
Similarly, a chest x-ray can reveal pulmonary problems such as pneumonia or a collapsed lung.
Computed tomography (CT)
They can be used to look for a blood clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism) or verify that the aorta artery does not have aortic dissection.
Drugs used to treat some of the most common causes of chest pain include:
Nitroglycerin relaxes the heart’s arteries, making blood flow easily through the narrowed spaces.
Some medications for blood pressure also relax and widen blood vessels.
If chest pain is suspected to be related to the heart, they will likely be given aspirin.
If there is a clot in one of the arteries that irrigate the heart or lungs, medications will be administered that inhibit blood clotting.
If the pain is caused by stomach acid, the doctor may suggest medications that reduce the amount of acid in the stomach.