Telencephalon: Parts, Functions and Pathologies

It is the brain’s largest and most developed structure, divided into two symmetrical halves called hemispheres or cerebral lobes.

It is found on the right and left sides of the head and separated from each other by an interhemispheric fissure.

It is located above the diencephalon and covers it like a helmet.

Telencephalon originates from the Greek roots telos, which means ‘end,’ and enkephalins, ‘brain.’

Telencephalon means the end of the brain, and in two ways, it is.

First, the telencephalon is the last area of ​​the brain that develops in the human embryo, and second, this was the last fraction of the brain that evolved in humans.

The term is used to distinguish one of the three formations found at the end of the neural conduit that develops until the end of the encephalon.


Parts of the telencephalon

The telencephalon consists of two hemispheres divided into five lobes: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and insular lobe.

The main structures in which each hemisphere of the telencephalon is composed are:

  • The cerebral cortex.
  • The hippocampus.
  • The cerebral amygdala.
  • The striatum.
  • The olfactory bulb.
  • The basal ganglia.


The telencephalon is responsible for granting the essence of the human being; their emotions, intelligence, language, memory, personality, and ability to feel and move are contained.

This is processed by the cerebral lobes, responsible for collecting the information.

The telencephalon is responsible for processing all information received from abroad.

These data collected by the senses are transferred to the cerebral cortex using the spinal cord and are processed in the nervous system.

Each structure of the telencephalon has a specific function within which we can summarize some below:

Cerebral cortex:

The cerebral cortex is the surface of the telencephalon fraught with folds and fissures characteristic of the brain’s most prominent part.

It is essentially composed of gray matter and neurons that coordinate.

It is responsible for integrating all kinds of information about what happens abroad and its actions in the future.

The cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes; occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal, named for the name of the skull bones that protect them.

The hippocampus:

The hippocampus is part of the cortex and is embedded in the lower temporal lobe of the hemispheres.

The hippocampus is involved in several processes, mainly in consolidating memories referring to declarative memory. It plays a vital role in declarative memory and is essential in language learning.

Brain tonsil:

It is located on both sides of the brain, between the temporal lobes, and is part of the limbic system.

This is no more than a network of cells delegated to the regulation and appearance of emotional states; it has the possibility of relating actions to consequences.

Striated body:

It is only the main path of data entry to the basal ganglia and is capable of receiving sensory stimuli from the cerebral cortex.

Olfactory bulb:

It is a structure located in the lower portion that belongs to the cerebral cortex; it receives olfactory information from the external environment.

Basal ganglia:

The basal ganglia, which surround the diencephalon, participate in motor functions, including speech articulation.

The basal ganglia co-help in different processes, connected with the control of voluntary movements and with “automation.”

The telencephalon is composed of the limbic system, which is the part where it widens, housing the cerebral hemispheres, which consist of five lobes:

  • Frontal lobe: It is related to judgment, self-control, sexual behavior, language production, short-term functional memory, motor skills, socialization, spontaneity, coordination, evaluation, and execution of behaviors.
  • Temporal lobe: Its main functions are associated with memory. The dominant temporal lobe stimulates the memory of words and the temporal lobe non-dominant images.
  • Occipital lobe: Here, the visual cortex is present, allowing visualization and interpret what is in the environment.
  • Insular lobe: Monitors the functional state of the body.
  • The parietal lobe is near the central groove and processes the signals linked to the body space.


Some conditions may be associated with conditions in the telencephalon.

They stand out among them:

  • Schizophrenia: This disease is characterized by chronic mental disorders when the individual presents alterations of reality.
  • Depression: This condition causes mood changes, transiently or permanently, from decay or tribulation to guilt. This does not allow you to enjoy the daily events of life; on the contrary, there is no motivation.
  • Bipolarity: This disorder produces sudden increases in energy, manifested in changing moods, from joy to sadness, quickly and without being able to control it.