This exam is usually performed under general anesthesia and provides a detailed inspection of the lining of those areas.
Panendoscopy is a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the lining of the back of the throat, larynx , esophagus or trachea ( swallowing tube ), stomach, duodenum, or the first part of the small intestine.
Also, if an abnormality is seen, part of it can be removed for biopsy purposes.
This procedure can be performed on an outpatient basis or with a hospital stay, depending on the complexity of the endoscopy. Occasionally, the procedure is done to correct an abnormality.
This is usually accomplished by removing the tissue with precision instruments. Panendoscopy is also known as gastroscopy or endoscopy.
It is the technique that allows the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract to be examined with an endoscope.
It is an endoscope, a long, thin, flexible fiber-optic tube, the diameter of your index finger, equipped with a miniature video camera and fiber-optic illumination at its tip.
It is inserted through the mouth and slowly advanced into the gastrointestinal system to obtain an image from the camera.
The images are viewed on a monitor and recorded for further study and confirmation if necessary.
Panendoscopy also allows the gastroenterologist to take tissue samples (biopsies) for histopathological testing, and polyps can also be removed during the procedure.
The instrument will not cause vomiting or gagging and will not interfere with breathing. Oxygen is administered throughout the procedure.
Uses of panendoscopia
Panendoscopy is particularly useful in investigating pathologies in patients who have swallowing problems, heartburn or indigestion, nausea, vomiting, or upper abdominal pain.
It is probably the most accurate way to diagnose conditions such as esophagitis , gastroesophageal reflux , hiatal hernia, gastritis or gastric or duodenal ulcers, Barret’s esophagus , celiac disease, achalasia and dyspepsia.
Biopsy samples are often taken for the bacteria known as Helicobacter pylori.
Panendoscopy is also helpful in diagnosing cancers of the esophagus or stomach in which biopsies can be taken at the same time.
Preparation for the procedure
The technique is performed under sedation or general anesthesia.
No special preparation is required for this procedure, but the doctor recommends:
- You should not eat or drink anything for six to twelve hours before the procedure.
- The patient may be asked to arrive one hour before the scheduled procedure.
Before the exam begins, an IV is placed in the arm to administer medications, for the patient’s comfort during the procedure.
Blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen will be continuously monitored through a monitor. The endoscope will be inserted through your mouth and a small plastic mouthpiece will be placed between your teeth.
Dentures, tongue rings, partials, and other items will need to be removed from the mouth. During the procedure, the patient will lie on their left side.
The lining of the stomach, esophagus, and upper small intestine will be examined. If necessary, biopsies can be obtained through the same endoscope.
During the procedure, you may feel a sensation of gas, the sensation of the scope in your abdomen, and possible nausea in the back of your throat.
The procedure takes between 15 and 60 minutes. Food and fluids will be restricted until the gag reflex returns.
This procedure requires IV sedation.
In some patients, the injection can cause a local reaction and sometimes bruises may appear under the skin. But these local reactions are generally reversible and will resolve within a few days.
The throat may be sprayed with a local anesthetic agent to decrease the sensation of the endoscope tube being inserted.
The throat may feel numb for a short time and will resolve within a few hours.
Complications with panendoscopy
All of these techniques are remarkably safe, but there is a very small risk of complications.
In some patients, there may be temporary discomfort or pain due to the introduction of air into the stomach or intestine.
In rare cases, major complications may occur, such as perforation (puncture) of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or colon.
There may also be hemorrhage (bleeding) after the removal of polyps, or especially if procedures such as esophageal dilation are performed, cardiac or respiratory arrests related to sedation or anesthesia may occur.
But, these complications are rare.
Other complications may occur such as:
- The lip or gums may be pinched by the rigid metal tubes used for the exam.
- Loose or decayed teeth can loosen or break during the procedure.
- When partially blocked airways are examined, breathing can become obstructed.
- If chest pain, shortness of breath, fever or chills are experienced after surgery, the doctor should be notified immediately.
- Although the instruments are meticulously sterilized as it must ensure safety against the transmission of bacteria and viruses such as HIV and hepatitis B and C, cases of infection have been reported.
Although panendoscopy is currently the best available method of examining the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, as with any diagnostic test, some potentially important diseases can still be missed on rare occasions.
If you want to discuss the potential risks or any issues related to your procedures in more detail, you should speak with your gastroenterologist.
- The use of voice should be minimized. Speaking in a normal tone and level of conversation will be the least traumatic. Avoid talking excessively, yelling, whispering, or frequently clearing your throat.
- Moisture from a vaporizer or humidifier will go a long way.
- After the procedure, your throat and jaw may be sore and require Tylenol or a mild sedative to control any discomfort.
- You will tire easily for several weeks after the procedure. Avoid excessive activity that can lead to exhaustion.