Lupus Nephritis: What is it? Diagnosis, Causes and Symptoms


What is it?

It is a secondary glomerular kidney disease and immune system caused by systemic lupus erythematosus which can affect various organs of our body such as skin, kidneys and nerves. Lupus Nephritis is an autoimmune disease that produces various autoantibodies, such as antinuclear antibodies and anti-histone antibody. Antigens invade the patient’s body and combine with these antibodies, as a result of which large amounts of immune complexes are formed in the blood. These immune complexes can be deposited in the different organs of our body and once they are deposited in the renal glomeruli (a part of the kidneys), lupus nephritis occurs.


What are the tests for lupus nephritis? 

• General Exam: Red blood cells are useful for the diagnosis of lupus nephritis .

• Immunological test

Antinuclear Antibody Test: Antibody test for antibodies is high sensitivity but low specificity.
Anti-double-stranded DNA antibody: It is one of the labeled antibodies.
Antibody-Anti histone: It can be tested in lupus nephritis and at some time in rheumatic arthritis.

The kidney biopsy can also help diagnose the damage that is occurring in the kidney.

Causes of Lupus Nephritis

Under normal conditions, the immune system protects our body from being damaged by harmful substances. However, due to an abnormal immune system, our body fails to see the difference between harmful and healthy substances. As a result, the antigen invades our body and is combined with the antibody generated by our body.

Immune complex It is the combination of antigen and antibody, which circulate in the blood and can be deposited in every part of our internal organs. When they are deposited in the kidney large amounts of mediators of inflammation accumulate around the immune complexes and result in an inflammatory response that is the direct cause of damaged renal functional cells.


Intermittent fever, red spot on the face whose shape resembles the butterfly, painless mouth ulcer, non-erosive arthritis, and hematological disorders. In addition, patients may also have an abnormal mental condition and a pale face after feeling cold. After that, the face looks purple, and then it becomes normal.

Second, patients may suffer from hematuria or proteinuria, accompanied by edema, back discomfort or high blood pressure, which is quite similar to renal glomerular nephritis.