Lupus Nephritis: What is it? Diagnosis, Causes and Symptoms

What is it?

It is secondary glomerular kidney disease and immune system caused by systemic lupus erythematosus, affecting various body organs such as skin, kidneys, and nerves. Lupus Nephritis is an autoimmune disease that produces different autoantibodies, such as antinuclear and anti-histone antibodies. Antigens invade the patient’s body and combine with these antibodies, resulting in large amounts of immune complexes forming in the blood. These immune complexes can be deposited in the different organs of our body, and once they are deposited in the renal glomeruli (a part of the kidneys), lupus nephritis occurs.


What are the tests for lupus nephritis? 

• General Exam: Red blood cells are helpful for the diagnosis of lupus nephritis.

• Immunological test

Antinuclear Antibody Test: The antibody test for antibodies is high sensitivity but low specificity.

Anti-double-stranded DNA antibody: It is one of the labeled antibodies.

Antibody-Anti histone: It can be tested in lupus nephritis and rheumatic arthritis.

A kidney biopsy can also help diagnose the damage occurring in the kidney.


Causes of Lupus Nephritis

Under normal conditions, the immune system protects our body from being damaged by harmful substances. However, due to an abnormal immune system, our body fails to see the difference between toxic and healthy substances. As a result, the antigen invades our body and is combined with the antibody generated by our body.

The immune complex is the combination of antigens and antibody circulates in the blood and can be deposited in every part of our internal organs. When they are deposited in the kidney, large amounts of mediators of inflammation accumulate around the immune complexes and result in an inflammatory response that is the direct cause of damaged renal functional cells.


Intermittent fever, red spot on the face whose shape resembles the butterfly, painless mouth ulcer, non-erosive arthritis, and hematological disorders. In addition, patients may also have an abnormal mental condition and a pale face after feeling cold. After that, the face looks purple, and then it becomes routine.

Second, patients may suffer from hematuria or proteinuria, accompanied by edema, back discomfort, or high blood pressure, similar to renal glomerular nephritis.