Left Abdominal Pain: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

It is most of the time a sign of excess gas or constipation.

Abdominal pain, also called stomach pain, refers to any pain that occurs between the chest and the pelvis.

As it is the region that contains most of the organs in the entire body, the abdomen is prone to pain due to a multitude of causes and diseases.

The myriad of possible diagnoses often make abdominal pain challenging for physicians.

All organs within the abdominal and pelvic cavities are possible sources of abdominal pain.

Even some organs located in the thoracic region such as the heart or lungs can cause abdominal pain.

The abdominal organs that are common sources of abdominal pain are: the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, kidneys, and intestines.

Location of abdominal pain

Due to the type of innervation that most organs located in the abdomen have, the brain is often unable to locate the exact focal point of pain.

Therefore, most of the diseases that occur in the organs located in the abdomen or in the pelvis cause diffuse pain, or pain in the umbilical region.

Exceptions include the kidneys, gallbladder, ovaries, or appendix, which tend to cause more lateral pain in the hypogastric, lumbar, or iliac regions.

Thus, the location of the pain is not sufficient to reach the definitive diagnosis.

For this reason, in addition to the location, it is important to evaluate other characteristics of the pain, such as the type, if it appears as burning, colic, spasms, pressure, among others.

There are also other characteristics that must also be taken into account such as duration, intensity, associated symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, fever or the presence of jaundice, some aggravating or triggering factors, and whether the pain radiates. or not.

Symptoms

Symptoms that commonly occur with abdominal pain include back pain, chest pain, constipation, diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, cough, and shortness of breath.

The characteristics of the pain (eg, sharp, cramping, radiation), the location of the pain within the abdominal area, and its relationship to eating, vomiting, constipation, or diarrhea are factors associated with symptoms.

Symptoms associated with abdominal pain include:

  • Fever.
  • Inability to keep food low for more than two days.
  • Any sign of dehydration.
  • Inability to pass stool, especially if you are also vomiting.
  • Painful or unusually frequent urination
  • The abdomen is tender to the touch.
  • The pain is the result of an injury to the abdomen.
  • The pain lasts more than a few hours.
  • Swelling.
  • Belching
  • Gas (flatus, farts).
  • Indigestion.
  • Upset in the upper left or right; half; or lower left or right abdomen.
  • Constipation.
  • Diarrhea.
  • GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
  • Acidity.
  • Chest discomfort.
  • Pelvic discomfort
  • Loss of appetite

The most serious symptoms include:

  • Severe pain
  • Bloody stools.
  • Persistent nausea and vomiting.
  • Involuntary weight loss
  • Skin that appears yellow.
  • Severe sensation when you touch your abdomen.
  • Swelling of the abdomen

Causes

Causes of pain in the left side of the abdomen

In general, abdominal pain does not indicate a serious condition.

Most of the time, the pain is related to intestinal cramps due to consumption of fatty foods, mild viral gastroenteritis, or food poisoning.

Mild abdominal pain that lasts for a short time, or lasts only a few hours, usually stems from gas-filled dilated intestines.

Anxiety can also cause short-term abdominal pain, by increasing the gas content in the intestines.

Almost everyone has experienced, at least once, mild pain in the abdomen that has disappeared spontaneously, without medical treatment.

However, when abdominal pain is severe or disabling that lasts for several hours or days or has other associated symptoms, such as fever, vomiting, lethargy, or bloody diarrhea, it is a cause for concern and specialized medical treatment is necessary.

Also, problems in the base of the left lung, as well as a heart attack, can cause pain in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.

In contrast, within the central and lower regions of the left abdomen, intestinal problems are often the main determinants of pain, particularly gastroenteritis and diverticulitis.

In women, gynecological sources, such as ovarian diseases or an ectopic pregnancy, must always be taken into account.

Abdominal pain can occur in any area of ​​the abdomen, and pain may be felt in one area of ​​the abdomen, even though the organ causing the pain is located in a different area.

Some diseases can cause pain in multiple areas of the abdomen.

Here are the common pain patterns associated with diseases:

Pain in the upper left side

If the pain occurs mainly in the upper left part of the abdomen, it could be due to stomach or kidney causes, such as indigestion, gas, reflux, gastritis, ulcers and an enlarged spleen

Pain in the lower left side

Colon conditions (diverticulitis and colitis) inflammation of the intestine or intestinal obstruction, especially if there is constipation.

Cramp pain may be due to gas, indigestion, inflammation, or infection, or it may be due to menstrual cramps, endometriosis

Severe pain in women can result from gynecological causes such as ovarian cysts or endometriosis, torsion of an ovary (ovarian torsion), rupture of an ovarian cyst, ectopic pregnancy, or pelvic inflammatory disease.

Men may experience severe pain in the left lower quadrant due to testicular torsion or injury.

Severe pain that comes in waves can be caused by kidney stones.

Trauma to the body wall and shingles can also cause left lower quadrant pain.

Shingles is a reactivation of the chickenpox virus (varicella zoster) that involves a painful, blistering rash that usually occurs on only one side of the body.

A hernia also causes abdominal pain and is a weakening of the muscle or tissue that allows organs or other tissues to protrude through it.

Pain in the lower abdomen

Possible causes are:

  • Urinary tract infections
  • Fibroides.

Causes of abdominal pain originating outside the abdomen

Some conditions that affect organs outside the abdomen can also cause abdominal pain.

These situations are often caused by atypical presentations of chest diseases. The most common are:

  • Myocardial infarction.
  • Pneumonia.
  • Hiatal hernia.
  • Pleural effusion.

Diagnosis of abdominal pain

Diagnosis of abdominal pain begins with a physical exam, a blood test, and an abdominal and pelvic imaging test.

The doctor may also use an X-ray, a CT scan.

When the doctor suspects that abdominal pain is due to a hollow organ, such as the stomach or colon, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy or a colonoscopy are the techniques of choice for diagnosis.

Associated symptoms such as changes in urination, bloody stools, fever, nausea, weight loss, and persistent vomiting will be looked for.

Also other symptoms associated with numbness, burning, tingling or itching of the skin, or if there are skin rashes (especially blisters) over the area of ​​pain.

Treatment

Treatment for abdominal pain depends on its cause.

Treatments can range from medications for inflammation, GERD, or ulcers, to antibiotics for infections, and changes in personal behavior for abdominal pain caused by certain foods or drinks.

In some cases, such as appendicitis and hernia, diagnostic tests, such as analysis of blood, urine, and stool samples, CT scans, and endoscopy, may be required to rule out or confirm a specific diagnosis, and surgery may be necessary. .

Treatments can include:

  • Over-the-counter pain relievers.
  • Prescription medications for inflammation, GERD, ulcers, or general pain.
  • Antibiotics
  • Low-dose antidepressants.
  • Changes in behavior, including eliminating certain foods or drinks that can contribute to abdominal pain.
  • Surgery to remove intestinal obstructions, hernias, or infected organs.