Klebsiella SPP: General, Pathophysiology and Treatment

General information about the Klebsiella SPP

The history of bacteria is so wide that, it could be said that they are actually responsible for having contributed to the creation of the world millions of years ago. But this would be an exaggeration.

What it would not be is that bacteria have had a presence on earth for millennia, since its creation. And that the wide range of them are swarming everywhere.

Some are more harmful than others. Some continue to be studied by entire communities of scientists, paying attention to their mutations.

One of these bacteria is called Klebsiella SPP, which we will define in this note. Let’s see.

Definitions of the klebsiella SPP

The Klebsiella SPP is a species (literally) of bacteria surrounded by a capsule that is visible thanks to a special laboratory technique: Gram staining.

This bacterium belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family; and it becomes pathogenic (causing disease) only under certain conditions, for example, when an individual is weakened.

Klebsiella species most commonly isolated in humans is Klebsiella pneumoniae, which is naturally present in certain organs such as the digestive tract or lungs, but its action is generally well controlled by the body, hence the absence of infection.

However, this bacterium can become “aggressive” under certain conditions, especially when the body is immunosuppressed, that is, when the immune system is reduced.

It can cause angina, lung infections, sometimes urinary infections or more widespread infections.

The bacterium Klebsiella SPP, also called Friedländer bacteria, is part of the intestinal flora and may be responsible for urinary and respiratory infections.

Bacteria can only cause disease if the person is already vulnerable, weakened. Normally antibiotics are enough to cure and eliminate the bacterium Klebsiella SPP.

The subcategory of Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterium that affects the respiratory tract, the lungs and can cause recurrent diseases such as tonsillitis, bronchitis, etc., and they are especially vulnerable: the elderly, sick children, diabetics or alcoholics.

For several years, doctors and researchers have found that the bacterium Klebsiella SPP, and in particular Klebsiella pneumoniae, has been increasingly resistant to antibiotics.

In hospitals or clinics, if a carrier of Klebsiella pneumoniae transmits this bacterium, it can affect the respiratory tract or surgical wounds of exposed patients.

In the latter case, we speak of nosocomial infections, that is, infections contracted in the hospital or in the clinic and that are not due directly to the disease for which we are being treated.

The word “nosocomial” comes from the fusion of two Greek words “nosos”: disease, and “komeîn”: to cure.

The bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae has become more resistant, so the fight against this bacterium is also becoming more and more difficult.

The first instruction to limit the damage is simply to wash your hands properly, with soap.

This germ is the cause of certain respiratory tract infections such as those of the lungs, and more specifically of the bronchi as well as angina in fragile subjects such as diabetics, the elderly or alcoholics.

Recently, it has been shown that this bacterium is resistant to several antibiotics, such as the third generation cephalosporins and the most recent aminoglycosides.

This resistance is due to the fact that Klebsiella SPP is the preferred host of certain elements called plasmids. Plasmids are bodies formed from a fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) unrelated to the chromosome.

And they are naturally present in certain organs such as the digestive tract or the lungs, but their action is usually well controlled by the body, hence the absence of infection.

Pathophysiology of Klebsiella SPP

Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause community-acquired pneumonia, mainly in patients over 40 years of age, with a defect such as alcoholism, lung disease or diabetes, among others.

Klebsiella pneumoniae, with other bacteria belonging to the same group, is the cause of infection of the bile ducts and surgical wounds.

Rhinoscleroma is a less frequent disease but also caused by bacteria that are close to Klebsiella pneumoniae.

This disease affects patients and is characterized by swelling, the hardness of the cartilage of the nasal passages, the upper lip, but also the septum of the nose.

It is a chronic granulomatous disease that reaches the lining of the upper respiratory tract (layer of cells that covers the inside of these organs) and can eventually invade the bone tissue, causing airway obstruction.

The germ in question is the Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis also called Frisch bacillus.

Klebsiella SPP also occurs in the urine and is the cause of urinary infections sometimes acquired in the hospital (nosocomial infection), particularly in certain services at risk, such as surgery, resuscitation or long-term services.

It seems that inadequate cleaning of the hands of the hospital staff, together with poor sterilization of the objects used, as well as an altered anatomical barrier are sufficiently valid to explain this phenomenon.

The alteration of the anatomical barriers may be due to extensive burns or therapeutic interventions (tracheotomy, intubation, urinary catheter, intravenous catheter, prosthesis, etc.)

The urinary tract infection is defined by the multiplication and therefore the presence of more than 100 000 (10 5) germs per ml of a urine sample, collected in the middle of urination, ie during the emission of urine.

Treatment of Klebsiella SPP

Klebsiella SPP is a species of bacteria, of which the best known subtype is Klebsiella pneumoniae.

The antibiogram, after sampling, allows to determine with precision the antibiotic (s) active (s) against the Klebsiella SPP.

Susceptibility is the result, obtained in the laboratory of analysis, of a test designed to show the sensitivity of a microbial organism (bacteria, parasite, fungus) to various antibiotics, in order to select the most effective antibiotic to fight against this germ.