Hypocalcemia is defined as a low level of calcium, which occurs when the concentration of free calcium ions in the blood falls below 4.4 mg / dL. The average concentration of free calcium ions in the blood serum is 4.4 to 5.4 mg / dL.
The incidence and prevalence are difficult to estimate because hypocalcemia is a multifactorial diagnosis.
In newborns, hypocalcemia is more likely to occur in children born to diabetic mothers or with preeclampsia. It can also happen in babies born to mothers who have hyperparathyroidism. In an elderly patient, a nutritional deficiency may be associated with a low intake of vitamin D. A patient with a history of alcoholism can help diagnose this condition due to magnesium deficiency, malabsorption, or chronic pancreatitis.
Acute hypocalcemia can lead to syncope, congestive heart failure, and angina due to multiple cardiovascular effects.
The neuromuscular symptoms are the following:
- Numbness and tingling sensation in the perioral area or the fingers and toes.
- Muscle cramps, especially in the back and lower extremities.
- Wheezing; can develop from bronchospasm.
- Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
- Changes in the voice (due to laryngospasm).
Neurological symptoms of hypocalcemia include the following:
- Irritability, impaired intellectual capacity, changes in depression, and personality.
- Other uncontrolled movements.
Chronic hypocalcemia can produce the following dermatological manifestations:
- Thick hair.
- Brittle nails
- Dry Skin.
- Chronic itching
- Bad teeth
- The falls.
The causes of hypocalcemia include the following:
- Improved multifactorial protein, binding chelation, and anions.
- Effects on medication.
- Surgical effects
- Vitamin D deficiency
Most hypocalcemic emergencies are mild and do not require treatment, only support and additional laboratory evaluation.
Magnesium and calcium are the only medications needed to treat hypocalcemic emergencies. The endocrinologist may choose to prescribe any of the various vitamin D supplements based on the results of laboratory tests and oral calcium supplements for outpatient treatment.
Due to the nature of hypocalcemia being secondary to a primary disease state, physical therapy management includes recognizing the signs and symptoms of the same.
- Calcium chloride.
- Gluconate of calcium.
- Calcium carbonate.
- Calcium citrate
- Vitamina D