Hypoesthesia: Definition, Causes, Types, Symptoms and Treatment

It refers to a reduced sense of touch or sensation or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli.

Hypoesthesia is a medical condition characterized by the partial or total reduction of sensitivity in its various forms (tactile, thermal, or pain). It is commonly called ” numbness.”

This causes the peripheral nerve to manifest itself in lesions of one or more peripheral nerves (neuropathy) and sensory ganglia. It can manifest itself in the nervous system in the case of diseases affecting the spine and spinal cord and in the case of some thalamic lesions.

What causes hypoesthesia?

In general, the cause is found in the presence of lesions that affect the nervous system (central and peripheral). The effect of anesthetic medications can also cause hypoesthesia.

Hypoesthesia usually occurs due to pathological changes in the central and peripheral nervous system, triggered by such factors:

  • Brain damage.
  • A malignant tumor that, by limiting the volume of the skull, leads to the numbness of the head. And with the growth of cancer, the lesion amplifies, alters vision, and headaches occur.
  • Migraines.
  • Problems in blood circulation.
  • A pinched nerve.
  • Multiple sclerosis, in which individual sections of nervous tissue are replaced by connective tissue cells. This can interrupt the coordination of movements.
  • Diabetes contributes to nerve damage.
  • Transient ischemic attack, accompanied by injuries to the hands and feet.
  • The abuse of alcohol.
  • A deficiency of vitamins and minerals in the body, for example, lack of vitamin B.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis attacks the nerve and causes deformation of the joint. Usually, you feel pain and stiffness in the affected area in the morning.
  • Leprosy.
  • Burns.
  • Genetic predisposition

Numbness in the feet can occur during pregnancy. In this case, there is no reason to feel worried. This may be due to metabolic disorders, the accumulation of water in the tissues, or an excess of weight that exerts additional pressure on the joints that are not used.


Facial hypoesthesia:  Occurs due to vascular or neurological pathologies. The loss of sensation in the middle of the face can speak of neuralgia.


Hypoesthesia of the hands:  Loss of sensitivity for two minutes or more; we can talk about the presence of diseases in the nervous or vascular system. In addition, this condition can be caused by multiple sclerosis, tumor, or stroke.

Hypoesthesia of the lower extremities:  It occurs with blood circulation disorders in the lower extremities and nerves.

Severe pain can also diagnose vascular disease, occlusive disease, venous insufficiency, and atherosclerosis. If there is radiated pain in the leg or lower back, it may indicate sciatica.


Numbness can also be a sign of some diseases. If you constantly have problems with numbness in your hands and feet, you should undergo a medical examination.

You must visit a therapist and undergo a general and biochemical blood test.

Visit a vascular surgeon and perform a duplex scan of the arterial blood vessels.

Visit a neurologist and check for scoliosis, degenerative disc diseases, hernias, or nerves.

Why do you need a medical exam?

The fact is that a severe health problem can be hidden under the appearance of seemingly frivolous issues.

The permanent numbness of the left hand may indicate heart problems.

Numbness in two extremities and numbness in one side of your body (for example, your left arm and left leg) are also dangerous. They can be symptoms of cerebral blood circulation disorder, leading to partial paralysis.

To get rid of the numbness in the extremities, it is necessary to face a severe illness. Here you will need the help of an expert.

Numbness in the legs can occur in the case of:

  • Osteochondrosis:  changes in the spine lead to compression of the spinal nerves, so it is recommended to perform sports urgently and perform a massage.
  • Hernias: treatment usually requires serious measures or even surgery; in lighter ways, special massages and acupuncture therapy are prescribed.
  • Atherosclerosis is often caused by bad habits and malnutrition, which you will have to worry about.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: inflammation of the joints occurs when the joints are deformed, which causes compression of the nerves and numbness.
  • Raynaud’s disease: a rare and severe condition in which the disorder of blood circulation in the extremities progresses over time and eventually leads to complete atrophy and gangrene; the infection can last for years and can hardly be treated; Prevention includes preventing hypothermia and stress.
  • Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves of the extremities.


To allow the development of a specific treatment for hypesthesia, it is essential to understand the underlying cause of the disorder and act accordingly.

Treatment at home will facilitate the state if you resort to:

  • Healing gymnastics (as a general rule, it is a set of specific exercises recommended by a doctor).
  • Contrast baths
  • Massages