Hemoglobin: What is it? Function, Types, Normal Values ​​and Thalassemia

It is constituted by four vital protein molecules (globulin chains) that are connected to each other and that allow the maintenance of this medical contribution.

Hemoglobin is a protein molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to body tissues and returns carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs, that is; it has multiple functions in its multiple functions.

Talking about chains the molecules of normal hemoglobin (abbreviated Hgb or Hb) contains two chains of alpha-globulin and two chains of beta-globulin that give an equal of 4 chains.

In fetuses and babies, the beta chains are not common for their prolonged development and the hemoglobin molecule is formed by two alpha chains and two gamma chains another of their characteristics.

Continuing with the baby’s essence as it grows, the gamma chains are gradually replaced by beta chains, forming the structure of normal hemoglobin or also known as adult.


Each chain of globulin contains an important supplement of universal knowledge called iron called heme or in other words a group of proteins that is familiar to hemoglobin.

This iron is vital in the body to deliver oxygen to the blood whose vitality is evident.

The iron contained in the hemoglobin is also responsible for the red color of the blood, a point that arouses the curiosity to continue knowing about this medical contributions that are of general ignorance.

Hemoglobin also plays an important role in maintaining the shape of red blood cells.

Normally you can see red blood cells like a rubber band but if the hole in the center of it, it will not vary from being round to another shape that is its standard form.

A different form to the mentioned thing is abnormal globules that really or in particular should not be called under this term because it does not fulfill the functions that correspond to it.

What are the normal values ​​of hemoglobin?

The level of hemoglobin is determined by several factors, in the safe laboratory tests you will see “gr” this refers to grams but if you see “dl” refers to deciliter are two of the two units used to express the results.

The normal values ​​of hemoglobin in humans are depending on the age of the person is also important if it is female or male to obtain medical results.

Normal levels of hemoglobin:

  • Newborns: from 17 to 22 gm / dL.
  • 1 week old: from 15 to 20 gm / dL.
  • 1 month old: 11 to 15 gm / dL.
  • Infantes: 11 a 13 gm / dL.
  • Men: from 14 to 18 gm / dL.
  • Women: from 12 to 16 gm / dL.
  • Men of the third age: 12.4 to 14.9 gm / dL.
  • Women of the third age: 11.7 to 13.8 gm / dL.

These values ​​usually vary depending on the laboratories they attend, but the difference will vary slightly.

Some laboratories do not differentiate between adult hemoglobin values ​​and those cataloged “after mature age”.

Pregnant women are advised to avoid high and low hemoglobin levels to avoid the risk of fetal death (high level of hemoglobin above the normal range) and premature birth or low birth weight (low hemoglobin level).

What is high hemoglobin?

Hemoglobin levels higher than normal can be observed in people who live at high altitude and in people who smoke.

Dehydration produces a significantly high hemoglobin measurement that disappears when the proper fluid balance is restored.

Other causes that make a state of high hemoglobin are: Lung diseases, certain brain tumors, a disorder of the bone marrow known as polycythemia and excessive consumption of psychotropic substances or drugs.

This drug is used in athletes for blood doping purposes (increasing the amount of oxygen available to the body by increasing the production of red blood cells chemically). In reference to this medical function, there are various contributions that are reflected or that are in reference to this contribution of medicine.

What is thalassemia?

Thalassemia is a group of inherited conditions such as deficiency or conditions in the hemoglobin states. The fact that the body does not produce globulin molecules will lead to a compensatory mechanism to form other less compatible globulin molecules.

That is, the lower production of red blood cells causes this condition. The different types of thalassemia are defined according to what type of globulin molecule is deficient. Said in this way, depending on the number of globules in the organism, the level of thalassemia will be defined.

Types of Hemoglobin

Within the types of hemoglobin are diverse but the most named and mostly asked by patients are 2 “low hemoglobin and high hemoglobin”.

Low hemoglobin

The prototype of that person that we see faded is synonymous or it may be that this presents a low hemoglobin picture.

Given this conjuncture, it is emphasized that hemoglobin is characterized by anemia that refers to the death of red blood cells that we find in the body, the death of each of which may be the cause of a low hemoglobin, that is, a low consumption of food. necessary or vitamins that should be consumed by the human being.

High Hemoglobin

If the low hemoglobin is a consequence of the death of red blood cells, “the high” is synonymous with a greater number of these globules that is not positive to the human body and can cause heart attacks or other diseases.

Consequently, a human being must have a balanced hemoglobin picture, remembering that everything varies according to gender or age as previously explained.