Cells are the basis of life. Plants, bacteria, humans, animals, algae and any other living organism are made up of small, microscopic cells.
Most cells have unique properties and become a specific type of cell to form a part of the body. For example, the cells of human skin remain skin cells throughout their life cycle.
Stem cells are the only type of cells that have the capacity to become any other type of cell. Eukaryotic cells, or cells that contain a nucleus, have DNA in the chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell that tells the cell what to do.
In biology, the term ploidy is used to define the number of sets of chromosomes that are found within the nucleus of a cell.
Different organisms have different number of chromosomes. Two types of eukaryotic cells are haploid and diploid cells , the main difference being the number of sets of chromosomes found in the nucleus.
What are haploid cells?
Haploid cells are cells that contain only a complete set of chromosomes. The most common type of haploid cells are gametes or sex cells. The haploid cells are produced by meiosis.
They are genetically diverse cells that are used in sexual reproduction. When the haploid cells of the parent donors unite and fertilize, the offspring have a complete set of chromosomes and become a diploid cell.
A haploid cell with a haploid number, which is the number of chromosomes that are inside the nucleus and that create a set. In humans, haploid cells have 23 chromosomes, compared to 46 in diploid cells.
There is a difference between haploid and monoploid cells. Haploid cells have a complete set of chromosomes, while the term monoploid refers to the number of unique chromosomes in a biological cell.
In diploid organisms, diploid cells contain the complete set of necessary chromosomes, while haploid cells have only half the number of chromosomes found in the nucleus.
Although haploid cells in humans and many other organisms are only in the cells of the gametes, some organisms, such as algae, go through a phase in their life cycle in which their cells will be haploid.
In addition, some organisms, including male ants, actually live as haploid organisms throughout their life cycle.
What are diploid cells?
Diploid cells are those that have two sets of chromosomes. In diploid organisms, each of the parents donates a set of chromosomes that will form the two sets in the offspring.
Most mammals are diploid organisms, which means that they have two homologous copies of each chromosome in the cells. In humans, there are 46 chromosomes.
In most diploid organisms, all cells, except gametes, will be diploid and will contain both sets of chromosomes. The diploid cells reproduce using mitosis, which creates a completely identical copy of the cell.
In humans, somatic cells (or non-sexual cells) are all diploid cells. These include the cells that make up the organs, muscles, bones, skin, hair and any other part of the body other than the ovules or the sperm cells.
What is the difference?
The main difference is the number of sets of chromosomes found in the nucleus.
Cells with two sets are diploid, and those with a set are haploid. In diploid organisms, such as humans, haploid cells are used only for sex cells for reproduction, while the rest of the cells are diploid.
Another difference between haploid and diploid cells is how they reproduce. Haploid cells reproduce using meiosis, while diploid cells go through mitosis.
Most mammals are diploid organisms, and their somatic cells will typically be diploid and their gamete cells will be haploid.
Importance of chromosomes
Chromosomes contain the DNA and protein of an organism inside cells. DNA contains the genetic code of a person, and proteins help control the functions of DNA.
A homologous chromosome is a pair of the same length, the positions of the centromere and the pattern they code for the same characteristics. DNA is the basic component of life.
It includes the coding of everything, from what an organism looks to if it is prone to certain diseases.
How the genetic code is transmitted is very important, whether in cell reproduction for the creation of new cells or in sexual reproduction to produce offspring.
If there is a malfunction in the reproduction of chromosomes, there may be problems, such as cancer or birth defects.
In the sexual reproduction of diploid organisms, each parent gives a set of chromosomes, transmitting certain genetic traits.
Several factors come into play if a certain gene is expressed. Some genes will only be expressed under certain conditions, such as the stress that causes the expression of certain genes that fight the disease.
Other genes, such as physical features, are expressed in terms of which allele is dominant and which is recessive. Since the coding of the human genome, scientists have learned much more about human health that helps promote the prevention and treatment of diseases.
The importance of the cell life cycle
The cells go through a life cycle that includes being born, reproducing and dying. The life cycle is very important to maintain the health of the organism, because if a cell does not reproduce correctly, it can cause problems.
The two main sections of the life cycle are interphase and mitosis or meiosis, depending on the cell.
During the interphase, the cells go through the phases G1, S and G2. During G1, the cells ensure that environmental conditions are favorable for replication. If they are not, the cells will enter a resting state of G0.
If they are, they will go through the S phase, where DNA replicates to prepare for cell replication. Then, the cell goes through the G2 phase to ensure that the DNA replication was done correctly.
If it was not like that, then it will solve any problem. Then, the cell enters the replication phase. In diploid cells, this phase will be mitosis, which creates two completely identical copies of the main cell.
In haploid cells, this phase will be meiosis, which creates four genetically unique haploid cells.
It is essential that cells monitor reproduction; otherwise, it can damage DNA replication. This can cause the cells to malfunction, which can cause diseases and cancer.
Cancer is often caused by a problem in the DNA of a cell that causes too many cells to reproduce. This may be due to a problem during the S phase of the life cycle, or due to an environmental factor that damages the cell’s DNA.