Hair loss is a concern in the world today. Over the years, natural products and various therapies have been administered to prevent them from falling.
Today surgery to reverse baldness, is the hair transplant and is the most common cosmetic surgery procedure.
A hair transplant, also called surgery for hair restoration or hair implantation, restores the capillaries, through a transplant of follicles in the areas of baldness or thinning.
It is normally used to correct baldness or alopecia . These healthy follicles are removed from other areas of the skin.
This graft is usually done by taking the follicles from the sides and the back of the head with a piece of skin or with individual follicles, transferring the hair follicles from a high density area to a low density one.
The choice of the nape area, is because there, the follicles have hormone receptors that are not affected by enzymatic overactivity and are usually less susceptible to the hormones that cause androgenic alopecia.
In this process the follicles do not lose their functional characteristics when transplanted, so they will allow the normal birth and growth of hair in the place where they are implanted.
The posterior and lateral areas of the head, are genetically programmed to grow throughout life, so once grafted into other areas do not fall and continue to grow normally.
There are very few cases of hair transplant in areas other than the scalp, however, it is possible to use this procedure for the recovery of density in areas such as eyebrows or beard.
Currently only hair follicle transplants of the same individual, or of an identical twin, have been performed.
As is usual in all surgical procedures, capillary transplantation requires adequate prior preparation. First, an evaluation must be done to determine the exact cause of the baldness .
A review of the density and quality of follicles that have the areas where they are taken should be carried out and an important point is an analysis of the general health conditions of the patient.
The preoperative rigor tests will be performed: Cardiac evaluation, blood count, coagulation tests, among others.
Prior to the intervention, the patient must follow the following recommendations:
- It must be protected from the sun’s rays.
- Avoid the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and vitamin supplements, as well as not smoking or drinking alcoholic beverages.
- A proper diet
- Stay away from stress.
Hair transplant risks
It is an outpatient procedure that is performed under local anesthesia. The risk of complications during surgery is minimal.
The normal thing is that the surgical work is carried out in four steps:
Extraction from the donor area of the follicle: Extraction of the hair follicle from the donor area is performed, usually from the neck area.
The separation and preparation of the hair follicles: This step will depend on the technique used to perform the hair transplant.
In the micro hair graft in strip the follicles are in a single strip and each one of the follicles must be separated, with the help of a microscope.
In the technique of micrografting of individual hair, the follicles are already separated and only the preparation necessary to carry out the transplant should be carried out.
Hair follicle implant: Each of the hair follicles is implanted, in micro holes that are made in the scalp, less than 1 mm. Previously, a design must be made that allows the follicles to be inserted and achieve a final appearance that looks natural.
Minimum age: To perform a hair transplant, the minimum age is 25 years. In general, the patient must enjoy a good state of health. The results of the transplant are not always adjusted to what is desired and its repetition is necessary.
Hair transplant techniques
In hair transplants, two techniques are currently used: Micro grafting of hair in strip and the micrografting of hair of individual extraction.
Micro technique of hair graft in strip: In this technique an area or strip of the scalp of the neck is removed, with an approximate surface of 1 cm wide by 15 to 20 cm long. Subsequently each unit of hair follicle is removed and then implanted in the recipient area of the transplant.
The incision that is made is sutured and hidden with the same hair.
Technique of micrografting of hair of individual classical extraction: In this technique one each follicular unit is removed separately. To carry out this procedure, a circular scalpel is used. Then these follicles will be implanted one by one, in the scalp.
Micro-grafting technique of individual extraction hair with device: It is similar to the technique of micro grafting of individual classical hair extraction, but an automated device is used instead of the circular scalpel. This procedure is much more effective and minimizes damage in the donor area.
There are some advantages among hair transplant methods. Regarding the results, if it is in the hands of specialists, there are no differences. They can be equally extraordinary.
The main advantage of the micro-grafting technique of individual extraction hair with respect to the technique of micro-grafting of hair in strip is that there are no scars visible in the donor area.
In the same way, by not extracting the follicles in strips, the donor area maintains its density.