What is gout?
Gout is a rheumatic disease of arthritis characterized by (elevated uric acid levels) hyperuricemia, inflammation, and pain.
It has been described throughout history as the “King’s Disease.” This is because high uric acid levels are often caused by the intake of food such as wine, red meat, and shrimp.
Progression of the disease
The patient often experiences an initial period of asymptomatic hyperuricemia, in which, if the levels are not reduced, an episode of acute gouty inflammation will occur over time. High levels cause the formation of uric acid crystals, which causes damage to the joints. The inflammation can cause damage to the cartilage, bone, bursa, tendons, and organs such as the kidneys and the heart.
The three stages of the Drop are:
- Asymptomatic hyperuricemia: Uric acid levels are elevated, but symptoms have not yet appeared
- The initial gout attacks: the appearance of acute gouty arthropathy. The intervals between acute attacks may decrease if uric acid levels are not controlled.
- Chronic gout is characterized by the formation of tophi, caused by crystal deposits.
Potential complications associated with uncontrolled droplet
- Chronic kidney disease.
- Congestive heart failure.
- Metabolic syndrome.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Symptoms of an acute attack of gout
- Severe pain occurs in the affected joint.
- The first attack almost always starts at the first joint (big toe).
- The red and shiny skin of the affected area may feel warm to the touch.
- Forms of uric acid in crystals, accumulating in small joints.
- The area becomes very painful. Complications, including disfigurement, can occur and, in severe cases, can lead to back pain due to compression of the spinal cord.
Progressive Drop Attacks
- Chronic inflammation progresses to a chronic phase.
- More affected areas are found.
- Start from the fingers going to the knees, elbows, and hands.
- This can cause irreversible joint deformation.
How is Gouty Arthritis diagnosed?
Signs such as pain and swelling in the big toe will lead the doctor to suspect gouty arthritis, ordering confirmatory blood tests. Uric acid should also be monitored through urinalysis and a 24-hour ordeal. Basal levels should be obtained to control kidney function.
Changes in diet and lifestyle
Increased fluid intake: staying hydrated helps eliminate uric acid. Avoid foods rich in purines.
Allopurinol: A pill that is taken to control gout attacks by attenuating the production of uric acid.
Colchicine: taken daily to prevent recurrent gout attacks from controlling inflammation, but has no analgesic properties.
It can be administered once every 6 hours for the initial treatment of an attack. Common side effects include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and nausea.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to fight inflammation, but because they are so heavy, they should be administered with food.