Euthyroidism: Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Stages, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis

It is a condition of the thyroid gland in which the work of the organ is altered, although the level of thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulants is average.

Physicians usually use this term to characterize the results of the analyzes obtained.

But, even though clinical euthyroidism is a physiological condition, serious diseases such as endemic goiter or autoimmune thyroiditis may begin to develop at their source.

These pathologies have a vivid clinical picture; the thyroid gland increases in size (the degree of increase depends directly on the severity of the disease).

We can realize the euthyroidism because, as in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, the patient notices a diffuse change of the gland, as well as the formation of specific ganglia (nodular goiter).

If several pathological formations of this type are formed simultaneously, then, in this case, we are talking about a multinodular goiter of euthyroidism.


The causes of the progression of euthyroidism are pretty diverse.


The problem is that the organs of the endocrine system are susceptible to various endogenous and exogenous factors.

Especially vulnerable is the thyroid gland.

Euthyroidism is referred to by many clinicians as a limiting condition.

The proportion of thyroid hormones can change at any time; the level can decrease and increase, which results in the progression of pathologies (for example, autoimmune thyroiditis).

Causes of euthyroidism:

  • The inadequate concentration of iodine in the body: this cause is the main one in the progression of thyroid diseases such as autoimmune thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, endemic goiter, and others.
  • Adverse environment.
  • Heritage.
  • Thyroid pathologies: are accompanied by severe inflammation (in which case the symptoms of the disease will be very pronounced).
  • Increase in physical and psychological stress.
  • Take medications that depress the functioning of the thyroid gland.
  • Enter some active substances in the body: arsenic, strontium, cobalt, and others.

Risk factor’s

Euthyroidism is more common in people with the following conditions:

  • Septicemia.
  • Diabetic cetoacidosis.
  • Thermal injuries
  • Chronic renal failure.
  • Cancer.
  • Protein deficiency
  • Anorexia nervosa.
  • Heart failure.
  • Pneumonia .
  • Cirrhosis .

Newborns in intensive care units are also at risk of being affected by the condition.


The symptoms of euthyroidism are directly related to the manifestations of the underlying condition.

The first symptom that arises in a person is nervousness. In addition, fatigue is associated with an increase in fatigue.

Later, these symptoms may appear:

  • Discomfort in the neck area.
  • The sensation of a lump in the throat.
  • Sensation of weakness
  • Headache.
  • Drowsiness.
  • An increase in the size of the thyroid gland: this symptom can indicate not only euthyroidism but also more severe pathologies of the gland.
  • Rapid weight gain: while continuing with your usual diet.
  • Change in the voice: this symptom appears in the context of an increase in the size of the thyroid gland.
  • Dry cough.
On the other hand, it is worth highlighting the most common form of euthyroidism: the nodal goiter.

This condition is characterized by the appearance in the gland of pathological excrescences. Doctors distinguish four varieties of nodular goiter:

  • Endemic goiter: progressing due to insufficient concentration of iodine in the body.
  • Nodular goiter: characterized by the union of nodules.
  • Goiter with a single node.
  • A goiter with numerous nodules.


  • 1st stage: at this stage of development, the thyroid gland is not enlarged and can not be palpated.
  • 2nd stage: the node can be palpated.
  • 3rd stage: the shape of the gland can be seen when swallowing.
  • 4th stage: the goiter expands to a significant area of ​​the neck.
  • Last step: the gland enlarges so much that it begins to press on the surrounding tissues and organs.


When a goiter is suspected or the thyroid gland is visibly enlarged, an essential diagnostic evaluation consisting of the following tests is indicated:

  • Realization of a specific history and physical examination: with attention to the cause of the goiter, potentially abnormal thyroid function, and any symptom or sign of mechanical compression.
  • Thyroid ultrasound: to confirm the dilation, to distinguish the diffuse goiter from a multinodular, and to reveal possible other causes of a goiter.
  • Measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): for evaluating thyroid function.

In addition to taking a history and physical examination, tests that can help to answer if someone has this disease include laboratory tests, functional studies (scintigraphy), imaging studies (ultrasonography and, in exceptional cases, computed tomography without means of contrast or magnetic resonance tomography) and needle biopsy.


The treatment of euthyroidism can be carried out only after the doctor performs an ultrasound of the thyroid gland and sends the patient for a blood test.

Depending on the results, euthyroidism may not require specific treatment.

These are the cases in which the gland is not enlarged, and the hormonal background is stable.

It is recommended to visit the endocrinologist regularly.

If a patient is concerned about specific symptoms described above, then the doctor will resort to a treatment whose main objective is to restore the functioning of the gland and also to normalize its size.

The treatment is done with:


The prognosis for euthyroidism is good. The condition is usually reversible and treatable.

The abnormalities are normalized once the underlying condition is treated.