Epithelioma: Causes, Classification, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Prediction

It is an abnormal growth of the epithelium.

Epitheliomas can be benign or malignant (cancerous), and there are several types depending on the types of epithelial cells affected.

Common epitheliomas include basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, two types of skin cancer involving the inner layers and the outer squamous cells of the skin.

A characteristic of the disease is a relatively large number of its clinical options.

The causes of such neoplasms on the skin remain unknown, but doctors identify many provocative factors. The leading risk group consists of healthy and older adults.


The causes of the appearance of small nodules on the skin in children and adults remain uncertain. However, doctors believe that several factors of an unfavorable nature that permanently affect the skin can contribute to this.

Among the factors that could most influence are:


  • Exposure to radioactive radiation.
  • Excessive sun exposure
  • Mechanical skin lesions
  • Inflammatory diseases of the skin.
  • The chronic presence of eczema.
  • Genetic predisposition

It is essential to consider that the epithelioma may begin to form instead of the scar.


The site of tumor location depends directly on the variety of said skin disease. The classification of the disease implies its division in the form of basal cells.

Among the rare forms of said tumor are:

  • Autocicative epithelioma and Malerba epithelioma.
  • Squamous or squamous cell epithelioma.
  • Trichoepitelioma.


Regardless of the variety of the tumor, in addition to appearing on the skin of the nodules, volumes of several millimeters and no more than five centimeters, the pathology has no other clinical manifestations.

In most cases, the basal cell epithelioma is located in the face and neck area. It is characterized by relatively rapid growth and sprouting in deeper layers.

The authoritative epithelioma is distinguished because it does not form a nodule but a minor ulcerative defect in the skin. As the disease progresses, the ulcer grows slowly, which may accompany scars in some of its areas.

The necrotizing epithelioma of Malerba is formed from the cells of the sebaceous glands. This type of pathology is one of the few that a child can suffer. The location of the node location is:

  • Ear area.
  • Neck area
  • The scalp
  • Back.

The neoplasm is very dense and mobile, but it grows slowly and does not exceed five centimeters in size. The type of span cellular formation is formed from a pointed layer of the skin, is malignant, and is accompanied by metastasis.

The neoplasm can be expressed as:

  • Nodes
  • Plates.
  • Ulcers.

The leading site of localization is the skin in the genital area or the perianal area and the red frame of the lower lip. In the ears, such tumors are rare.

Adenoid cystic epithelioma is often diagnosed in female representatives in the age group after puberty—the color of the formation, which by volume does not exceed a pea, bluish or yellow-white.

Typical location of such nodes:

  • Area of ​​the ears.
  • The scalp
  • The scapular waist.
  • The anterior wall of the abdominal cavity.
  • Upper and lower members.
  • The cornea of ​​the eye.

They often have a benign course and grow slowly, but in sporadic cases, they can become basal cells.


For a correct diagnosis, you must study the data of the instrumental exams, but before assigning them, you need:

  • Interview the patient at the time of the appearance of tumors.
  • Study the patient’s medical history.
  • Carry out a thorough examination of the skin, paying particular attention to the area of ​​the ear, the scalp, and the eye cornea.

Laboratory tests are limited to studying the separation of fluids from ulcers.

The necrotic epithelium requires the following instrumental studies:

  • Dermatoscopy.
  • Ultrasound.
  • A biopsy (this will allow determining with precision the malignant or benign nature of the disease).

The differential diagnosis involves the elimination of such ailments:


The only way to get rid of skin epithelioma is the surgical removal of the tumor. The operation is carried out in several ways:

  • Criodestrucción.
  • Exposure to laser radiation.
  • Electrocoagulation
  • Curettage.

In cases of malignant nature, the operable treatment is combined with:

  • X-rays by radiotherapy.
  • Photodynamic therapy.
  • Chemotherapy.


Because the necrotizing epithelioma of the skin develops in the context of unknown factors, there are no preventive measures. People must protect their skin from prolonged exposure to sunlight, harmful substances, and radiation.


If the neoplasms are benign, the prognosis is favorable: the patient recovers completely after the operation. The most unfavorable result can be observed with the squamous epithelioma, especially in metastasis.