Epithelioma: Causes, Classification, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Prediction

It is an abnormal growth of the epithelium.

Epitheliomas can be benign or malignant (cancerous) and there are several types depending on the types of epithelial cells affected.

Common epitheliomas include basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, two types of skin cancer that involve the inner layers and the outer squamous cells of the skin, respectively.

A characteristic of the disease is that there is a fairly large number of its clinical options.

The causes of such neoplasms on the skin remain unknown, but doctors identify a wide range of provocative factors. The main risk group consists of healthy and elderly people.

Causes

The causes of the appearance of small nodules on the skin in children and adults remain uncertain, but doctors believe that several factors of an unfavorable nature that permanently affect the skin can contribute to this.

Among the factors that could most influence are:

  • Exposure to radioactive radiation.
  • Excessive sun exposure
  • Mechanical skin lesions
  • Inflammatory diseases of the skin.
  • The chronic presence of eczema.
  • Genetic predisposition

It is important to take into account that the epithelioma may begin to form instead of the scar.

Classification

The site of tumor location depends directly on the variety of said skin disease. The classification of the disease implies its division in the form of basal cells.

Among the rare forms of said tumor are:

  • Autocicative epithelioma and Malerba epithelioma.
  • Squamous or squamous cell epithelioma.
  • Trichoepitelioma.

symptom

Regardless of the variety of the tumor, in addition to appearing on the skin of the nodules, volumes of several millimeters and no more than five centimeters, the pathology has no other clinical manifestations.

The basal cell epithelioma in the vast majority of cases is located in the area of ​​the face and neck, and is characterized by a fairly rapid growth and sprouting in deeper layers.

The autocicative epithelioma is distinguished by the fact that it does not form a nodule, but a small ulcerative defect in the skin. As the disease progresses, there is a slow growth of the ulcer, which may be accompanied by scars in some of its areas.

The necrotizing epithelioma of Malerba is formed from the cells of the sebaceous glands. This type of pathology is one of the few that a child can suffer. The location of the node location is:

  • Ear area.
  • Neck area
  • The scalp
  • Back.

The neoplasm is very dense and mobile, but it grows slowly and does not exceed five centimeters in size. The type of spinocellular formation is formed from a pointed layer of the skin, is malignant in nature and is accompanied by metastasis .

The neoplasm can be expressed as:

  • Nodes
  • Plates.
  • Ulcers.

The main site of localization is the skin in the genital area or the perianal area, as well as the red frame of the lower lip. In the ears, such tumors are rare.

Adenoid cystic epithelioma is often diagnosed in female representatives in the age group after puberty. The color of the formation, which by volume does not exceed a pea, bluish or yellow-white.

Typical location of such nodes:

  • Area of ​​the ears.
  • The scalp
  • The scapular waist.
  • The anterior wall of the abdominal cavity.
  • Upper and lower members.
  • The cornea of ​​the eye.

They often have a benign course and grow slowly, but in very rare cases they can become a basal cell.

Diagnosis

For a correct diagnosis, you must study the data of the instrumental exams, but before assigning them, you need:

  • Interview the patient at the time of the appearance of tumors.
  • Study the patient’s medical history.
  • Carry out a thorough examination of the skin, paying special attention to the area of ​​the ear, the scalp and the cornea of ​​the eye.

Laboratory tests are limited to the study of the separation of fluids from ulcers.

The necrotic epithelium requires the following instrumental studies:

  • Dermatoscopia.
  • Ultrasound.
  • A biopsy (this will allow to determine with precision the malignant or benign nature of the disease).

The differential diagnosis involves the elimination of such ailments:

Treatment

The only way to get rid of skin epithelioma is the surgical removal of the tumor. The operation is carried out in several ways:

  • Criodestrucción.
  • Exposure to laser radiation.
  • Electrocoagulation
  • Curettage.

In cases of malignant nature, the operable treatment is combined with:

  • X-rays by radiotherapy.
  • Photodynamic therapy.
  • Chemotherapy.

Prevention

Because the necrotizing epithelioma of the skin develops in a context of unknown factors, there are no preventive measures. People just need to take care of their skin, protect it from prolonged exposure to sunlight, harmful substances and radiation.

Forecast

If the neoplasms are benign, the prognosis is favorable: after the operation, the patient recovers completely. The most unfavorable result can be observed with the squamous epithelioma, especially in the presence of metastasis.