Cystitis – A Vesical Problem: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition: is the medical term used for inflammation of the bladder.

Most of the time, this inflammation is caused by a bacterial infection and is called “urinary tract infection”.

Cystitis can be intense and bothersome, and it can become a serious health problem if the infection spreads to the kidneys.

Hemorrhagic cystitis is defined as evidence of blood in the urine, which is accompanied by bladder pain (pain in the bladder) and symptoms of irritation in that area.

The volume of blood can vary from a tiny amount that can appear sporadically, to the continuous presence of blood of an intense red color.

This presence of blood in the urine, known as “Hematuria”, can have numerous causes.

The people with the highest risk of suffering from this pathology are oncological patients, in this case, it can be started during treatment, after it or even, it may appear several months after cancer treatment.

Also, apart from the presence of blood in the urine, a person with this type of disease, usually urinates more often than normal and feel a pain or burning when urinating.

It is also frequent that the affected person suffers from pains in the lower back and abdomen. In some people, this disease can cause nausea and fever.

From time to time, cystitis can originate as a reaction to certain medications, to the exposure of radiotherapies or it can also appear due to some irritants, such as: feminine hygiene sprays, spermicides or even the prolonged use of catheters.

In the same way, cystitis can develop as a complication of some other disease.

Causes of Cystitis

In addition to oncology, there are several reasons why hemorrhagic cystitis may appear, such as:

  • Obstruction of the bladder or urethra.
  • Diabetes.
  • Increased prostate, narrow urethra or any element that blocks the flow of urine.
  • Intestinal incontinence
  • Pregnancy.
  • Urinary retention.
  • Procedures involving the urinary tract.
  • Exposure to toxic chemicals.
  • Immunity to medicines such as penicillins or danazol.
  • External or interstitial radiotherapy.
  • Different kinds of Virus.


It is important to remember that this type of infection can be suffered by both children and adults. In adults, the most common symptoms are:

  • Urgent and abundant need to urinate.
  • Itching in the urethra when urinating.
  • Redness of the vulva and itching when urinating (in women).
  • Pain when urinating and having sex.
  • Dark or abnormal color of urine.
  • Vision of blood in the urine.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Vomiting and nausea.
  • Pain in the side or back.
  • Be more irritable than usual.

In children, it is common for cystitis to be confused with other disorders, so it is important to consider the following symptoms:

  • Permanent irritability.
  • Loss of regular appetite.
  • Fever.
  • Incontinence.
  • Alterations in development.


There are tests and analyzes to confirm if a patient suffers from cystitis. These tests would vary according to the location where the infection is presumed to reside.

Some of the most general tests are the following:

Physical examination: the doctor feels the area of ​​the abdomen and the pelvic area of ​​the patient to detect places with pain or redness.

Urinalysis: a sample of the patient’s urine will determine if it contains an infectious agent.

Cultures of urine, vaginal fluid or urethral fluid: a drop of some of the two liquids is grown in a plate with nutrients for bacteria, after a few hours have elapsed, it is determined what type of bacteria is the cause of the infection and which antibiotics are They must use it effectively.


Treatment for this condition may include drugs to treat pain. Sometimes drugs are put in the bladder to help monitor bleeding.

Blood transfusions can also be useful in cases in which hemorrhagic cystitis causes anemia.

However, the basic treatment to combat urinary tract infections are antibiotics (if the infection is caused by bacteria), or antivirals (if it is caused by viruses). The most commonly used antibiotics are trimethoprim, amoxicillin and ampicillin.

A new variety of drugs called “quinolones” have recently begun to be used for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Some of these, such as ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and trovafloxin.

Before beginning treatment with antibiotics, the doctor should check if the patient suffers from a disorder that may aggravate the infection, such as: variation of nervous activity, diabetes or decreased body defenses.


Maintaining a balanced diet and living a healthy lifestyle can help prevent a urinary tract infection; Similarly, it is advisable not to hold urine and regularly drink water, at least eight (8) glasses per day, as this will benefit diuresis.

In the case of women, it is essential to be careful with condoms, spermicidal creams even with the use of the diaphragm, since they are not recommended for people prone to urinary tract infections.

Likewise, it is advisable to use lubricating creams during sexual intercourse, since postcoital vaginal irritation is a frequent cause of infection in the bladder; The use of lubricants is an effective way to avoid rubbing and possible infections.

Finally, it can be said that cystitis is nothing more than a bacterial infection of the urine, which affects both sexes throughout life.

Its incidence is higher in females among women 20 to 40 years old, and in men from 50 years of age, however, this disease can also affect children.

It is important to point out that although cystitis is a benign disease or pathology, it can cause great complications in the person (at the level of the kidneys) if it is not treated as soon as possible.