Conjunctival Sac: What is it? Function, Related Diseases and Conjunctival Vascularization

It is the space between the eyelids and the eyeball to cover, lubricate and protect it.

It has a thin and transparent tissue known as the conjunctiva, which allows the eye to be lubricated through the segregation of oils or mucous membranes that are not visible to the individual if the conjunctival sac is checked.

The conjunctival sac has two layers:

  • External.
  • Internal

The outer layer is the one that has the cells in charge of producing the mucous lubricant for the eye and blood vessels. On the other hand, the internal one is fibrous.

The conjunctiva is anatomically divided into three parts, which are:

  • Palpebral conjunctiva: it is the area where the lines of the ocular eyelids meet.
  • The bulbar conjunctiva is the area linked to the sclera just by Tenon’s capsule, which can move together with the eyeball because it covers it as a surface.
  • Fornix conjunctiva is in charge of linking or uniting the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva. It tends to have a flexible shape, thereby allowing the eyelids and the eyeball to move quickly with the speed and times that the individual wishes.

Conjunctival sac function

Its primary function is to prevent external agents, microbes, dirt, or particles from having direct contact with the eyeball.

It also works to apply for medicines, drops, or artificial tears because it serves to retain the liquid and later, when closing the eye and bringing the eyelids together, spreading the product all over the eyeball.


Disorders and diseases in the conjunctival sac

The eye area is very prone to suffering from various conditions as a result of its exposure to the environment, bacteria, germs, and diseases, in turn leading to:

  • Infections
  • Trauma
  • Irritations.
  • Allergic reaction.
  • Inflammations.
  • Dryness.

Among the most common disorders or diseases in the conjunctiva sac can be mentioned:

Leptospirosis: This eye condition is caused by a bacteria called Leptospira.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity; however, the most common are:

  • Muscle aches in the eye
  • Severe or chronic headache.
  • Elevated body temperature or high fever.

This condition could have severe consequences for the body if it is not cured in time, such as:

  • Eye bleeding.
  • Bleeding in the lungs.
  • Meningitis.

Tumors: the conjunctiva sac can sometimes present tumors that, depending on the case, can be:

  • Benign.
  • Pre-malignancies.
  • Evil

To treat them regardless of the case that the patient presents, a series of tests should be carried out to determine if it can be extracted without difficulty to prevent eye injuries, including avoiding the loss of vision.

Conjunctivochalasia: the elderly or the elderly can suffer from this condition which is nothing more than the stretching of the conjunctival sac.

However, it can lead to some complications or discomfort as it is prone to growing bacteria that can cause the following symptoms or conditions:

  • Constant irritation
  • Dryness or dry eye.
  • Localized pain
  • Segregation of fluids or mucous through the eye.
  • Subconjunctival hemorrhage.
  • Perception of having a foreign body or agent in the eye.
  • Ulceration in the eye socket.

Conjunctivitis: bacterial or viral infections tend to noticeably inflame the conjunctiva due to the body’s defenses trying to fight this external agent found in the eye.

Symptoms or conditions related to inflammation can be:

  • Redness of the eye and its surroundings.
  • Constant burning or itching.
  • Mucous fluid secretion.
  • Visual sensitivity
  • Inflammation of the eyelids.
  • Tearful eye
  • Difficulty opening the eyelids.
  • Sensitivity to brightness or light.

Conjunctival vascularization

The conjunctival vessels are essential for clinical or medical study because they are the ones that allow us to recognize when a sudden redness is caused by common conjunctivitis or, failing that, represents another more delicate and profound condition, which implies being a problem. To deal with more complexity.

These conjunctival vessels are born from the bottom of the sac and are dispersed throughout the conjunctiva; therefore, when there is an external infectious agent inside the sac, they dilate to alert the body to what is happening.

It is essential that if any individual detects an anomaly coming from their conjunctival sac, they immediately go to a specialist doctor to determine the condition and combat it in time.

The eye and everything that makes it up is extremely delicate because it is a mucous area and easily contaminated. Being infected can have repercussions in future irreversible discomfort or damage if it is not treated with the appropriate medications.