Glucose is a monosaccharide, the most basic unit of carbohydrates.
The human body cannot create glucose on its own. Glucose enters the body through food intake.
In necessary or urgent situations, the body obtains glucose from the transformation of stored fats or proteins.
Glycemia is the glucose that circulates in the blood.
The normal human blood glucose level for non-diabetics should be stable between 75-110 mg / dL.
Basal blood glucose is the amount of glucose present in the blood first thing in the morning after a fast from not consuming food for at least 8 hours.
Postprandial blood sugar measures blood glucose after eating.
The foods responsible for the highest blood glucose levels are those that are high in carbohydrates.
In non-diabetic people, although blood glucose levels rise after a meal, they return to normal about 2 hours later.
The following terminology can be differentiated:
- Insulin index: a measure used to quantify the typical insulin response to various foods.
- Glycemic index: this number is associated with food and indicates the effect a particular food has on the blood glucose level.
- Glycemic load : It is a number that calculates how much a person’s blood glucose level will rise after eating it.
There are some clinical situations in between normal levels and confirmed diabetes known as impaired glucose metabolism, a term now used in place of pre-diabetes that has fallen out of favor.
This alteration is:
- A metabolic disorder that is halfway between normality and diabetes.
- A risk factor for developing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
There are two clinical forms:
- Altered basal blood glucose: the stage used to define basal blood glucose between normal blood glucose and diabetes, 110-125 mg / dl.
- Glucose intolerance: the phase that is defined by a blood glucose in the range of 140 and 200 mg / dl two hours after the glucose tolerance test.
La glucemia basal
The “basal” plasma glucose is defined as the stable concentration during the night.
An elevated basal plasma glucose provides diagnostic information similar to conventional oral glucose tolerance tests and provides an adequate measure of diabetes control.
Basal glucose is an index that comes from the intake of foods that contain carbohydrates, in this analysis the amount of glucose present in the blood is indicated.
To metabolize sugar in the body, glucose uses insulin, which is a hormone synthesized by the pancreas and acts automatically when it detects high levels of glucose in the blood.
When we eat food, it is normal for the basal glucose level in the blood to rise.
Once the surge has taken place, the pancreas releases insulin.
If glucose levels do not drop to normal levels, then the individual may have their vision, nervous system, circulatory system, and renal system affected.
Normal baseline blood glucose levels
Basal blood glucose levels that are considered normal fluctuate around 90 mg / dl.
Ingested food is converted by the body into glucose and is distributed by the bloodstream, to then be used as energy in metabolic processes.
The problem arises when the levels rise to 140 mg / dl or a little more after meals, since the cells do not respond to insulin.
Causes of a high basal blood glucose
- High carbohydrate foods.
- A sedentary life, with an absence of physical activity.
- The presence of diseases or infections.
- Hormonal changes, during the menstrual period.
- The stress .
Low basal blood glucose
Indicators below 70 mg / dl in the bloodstream are very dangerous.
These levels are known as hypoglycemia.
When these levels drop unexpectedly, at least 15 grams of carbohydrates should be ingested, if after ingesting them the levels remain below 70 mg / dl, a doctor should be consulted immediately.
Wait until the levels have reached normal values and check them again.