Red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. These are known as arterial blood gases.
As blood passes through your lungs, oxygen flows into the blood, while carbon dioxide flows from the blood to the lungs.
The blood gas test can determine how well your lungs can move oxygen into the blood and eliminate carbon dioxide.
Imbalances in oxygen levels, carbon dioxide, and blood pH can indicate the presence of certain medical conditions. These may include:
- Renal insufficiency.
- Heart failure.
- Diabetes is not controlled.
- Chemical poisoning
- An overdose of drugs.
Your doctor may order a blood gas test when you show symptoms of these conditions. The test requires collecting a small amount of blood from an artery. It is a safe and straightforward procedure that only takes a few minutes to complete.
An Arterial Gas Test provides an accurate measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in your body. This can help your doctor determine how well your lungs and kidneys work.
This is a test used most often in the hospital setting to determine the treatment of patients with acute illnesses. It does not have a vital role in primary care, but it can be used in a laboratory or pulmonary function clinic.
Your doctor may order a blood gas test if you show symptoms of an imbalance of oxygen, carbon dioxide, or pH. Symptoms may include:
- Difficulty breathing.
- Difficult breathing
These symptoms can be signs of certain medical conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Your doctor may also order a blood gas test if you suspect that you are experiencing any of the following conditions:
- Lung disease.
- Kidney disease
- Metabolic disease
- Head or neck injuries that affect breathing.
Identifying imbalances in blood pH and gas levels can also help your doctor control the treatment of specific conditions, such as lung and kidney diseases.
A blood gas test is often ordered along with other tests, such as a blood glucose test to check blood sugar levels and a blood test with creatinine to evaluate kidney function.
Since a blood gas test does not require a large blood sample, it is considered a low-risk procedure. However, it would help to always inform your doctor about existing medical conditions that may cause you to bleed more than expected.
You should also inform them if you are taking over-the-counter or prescription medications, such as blood thinners that can affect your bleeding.
Possible side effects associated with the blood gas test include:
- Bleeding or bruising at the puncture site.
- Accumulation of blood under the skin.
- Infection at the puncture site.
Tell your doctor if you experience unexpected or prolonged side effects.
Procedure – Arterial Gases
A blood gas test requires the collection of a small sample of blood. Arterial blood can be obtained from an artery in the wrist, arm or groin, or preexisting arterial line if you are currently hospitalized.
A blood gas sample can also be venous, from a vein or a preexisting IV or capillary, which requires a small heel prick.
A technician called a phlebotomist would first sterilize the injection site with an antiseptic. Once they find an artery, they insert a needle into the street and draw blood.
You may feel a slight pinch when the needle comes in, but the test is not painful. After removing the hand, the technician will place a bandage over the wound by a puncture.
The blood sample will then be analyzed by a portable machine or laboratory on site. The model must be analyzed within 10 minutes after the procedure to ensure an accurate test result.
The results of an Arterial Blood test can help your doctor diagnose various diseases or determine how healthy treatments work for certain conditions, including lung diseases.
It also shows if your body is compensating for the imbalance. Due to the possibility of compensation in some values that will cause the correction of other matters, the person interpreting the result must be a trained doctor with experience in interpreting blood gases.
The test measures:
- The arterial blood pH measures the number of hydrogen ions in the blood. A pH of less than 7.0 is called acid, and a pH greater than 7.0 is called primary or alkaline.
- A lower blood pH may indicate that your blood is more acidic and has higher carbon dioxide levels.
- A higher blood pH may indicate that your blood is more essential and has a higher bicarbonate level;
- Bicarbonate is a chemical that helps prevent the pH of the blood from becoming too acidic or too basic.
- Oxygen partial pressure measures the pressure of dissolved oxygen in the blood. It determines how well oxygen can flow from the lungs to the blood.
- The partial pressure of carbon dioxide measures the pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide in the blood. Determines how well carbon dioxide can escape from the body.
- Oxygen saturation measures the amount of oxygen carried by the hemoglobin in red blood cells.
In general, average values include:
- PH of arterial blood: 7.38 to 7.42.
- Bicarbonate: from 22 to 28 milliequivalents per liter.
- Partial oxygen pressure: 75 to 100 mm Hg.
- The partial pressure of carbon dioxide: is 38 to 42 mm Hg.
- Oxygen saturation: 94 to 100 percent.