Anopsia: What is it? Causes, Classification, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

It usually occurs as a result of the termination of the activity of the optic nerves and the presence of diseases of the retina of the eye.

The anopsia (anope) is a defect of the vision or a total lack of it. This vision defect occurs in the context of the extinction of the optic nerve. This is accompanied by a condition in which nervous tissue is an acute shortage of nutrients.

Because of this, the neurons begin to die slowly. Over time, atrophy spreads to a large number of cells and, in severe cases, to the entire nerve trunk.

This pathology can not occur independently, as a rule, this occurs in the context of other neurological problems.

The presence of edema in the initial parts of the nervous trunk. It occurs in all pathological conditions in which intracranial pressure increases (meningitis, hydrocephalus , trauma to the skull area, etc.).

The development of growths around the nerve or tissues located near it. Therefore, there is a growth of nerve tissue that leads to the compression of neurons.

Causes

Toxic nerve injury

It occurs as a result of the influence in an organism of toxic elements, which causes the disintegration of nerve cells.

A toxic effect is able to provide the following materials: methanol, industrial waste (lead and carbon disulfide), alcohol and tobacco in excessive quantities, medications (digoxin, sulfanilamide, sulfalen, etc.).

Neuritis intrabulbar y retrobulbar.

It manifests an infectious process that affects the neurons in the cavity of the eyeball or behind it.

Other predisposing factors

The main causes of anopsia is a modification of the structure of the eyeball and the homeostasis of its internal environment. Also for the development of pathology causes damage to the optic chiasm and the course of degenerative reactions related to age.

It also arises against the following diseases:

  • Waterfall.
  • Closed angle glaucoma .
  • Aneurysm of the brain vessels.
  • The influence of ionizing radiation.
  • The presence of chronic diseases, which affects the structures of the eye ( diabetes mellitus ).
  • Violation of hemodynamics in the system of the middle and posterior cerebral arteries.
  • Benign and malignant tumors in the tissues of the pituitary gland and the brain.

Classification

Anoxia can be partial and absolute (total blindness). With respect to partial defects, they can be of the following types:

  • Hemianopsia: The lateral blindness of the half of the visual field is the result of disorders of the visual system at the level of the optical tracts or the visual cortex of the brain.
  • Quadrantanopia:   The blindness of a quarter of the visual field develops due to a damage in the occipital part, atrophy of the upper and lower hemianopsia of the upper or lower segment of the optic field.
  • Bitemporal hemianopsia:   partial blindness, in which the perception of the temporal half of the right and left fields is lost.
  • Benatalaya hemianopsia: partial blindness, in which the loss of perception of the nasal halves of the right and left visual fields.

There is a special type of anobii – scotoma, characterized by the presence of a dark black spot at the bottom of a clear and stable image. Scotoma has different shapes (oval, round, arched, sectorial and annular), and appears in any area of ​​the optical field.

As a result, a concomitant disorder such as amblyopia (low visual acuity) develops. This pathology has several levels of severity (mild, moderate, severe and blind) and occurs in all patients with anomie without exception.

The disorder occurs spontaneously and in constant growth. When it is not treated in time, irreversible blindness can occur.

symptom

Temporary or permanent blindness is the main symptom of the disease. Before the loss of the field of vision due to an acute vascular accident, there are visual hallucinations in the form of fire, geometric shapes, certain images and shapes.

In some cases, there is an explicit reconstruction of the visual field in the blind areas. These phenomena are like the addiction of the optical analyzer to the existing defects.

In general, it states that the symptoms depend on the type of vision defect. If partial atrophy occurs, the symptoms may not manifest, or a marked loss of the visual field, an eye.

When the complete atrophy of the optic body ceases to exist completely. This is accompanied by the involution of the right or left visual fields in both eyes.

Diagnostic method

For the diagnosis, it mainly checks the background. It can help to evaluate the primary division of the nervous trunk.

Laser ocular disc tomography

The application of this method allows to consider the transformation of the nervous trunk in appearance.

Treatment

As the anopsia is not a separate disease, but a symptom of any pathological process, the treatment consists of alleviating the underlying pathology. For the function of eye regeneration, the following groups of drugs are assigned:

  • Antihipoxants and antioxidants reduce the activity of destructive reactions and eliminate the lack of oxygen from the nerve.
  • The nootropics accelerate the regeneration of the narcosis and stimulate blood flow.
  • The microcirculation by means of correctors contributes to the improvement of the metabolic processes in nerve cells.
  • The medication to decrease the performance of the vessels carries out the protection of the optic nerve against additional losses.