What is a Neoplasia: Examples, Types and Causes

It is the abnormal growth and proliferation of abnormal cells due to a process that can become benign or malignant.

A benign neoplasm, or a benign tumor, has several general characteristics, such as:

• They do not invade or destroy the tissue that is surrounding it.

• Does not spread to other parts of the body

Generally, these have well-defined margins so as not to have consequences after the surgical removal has been performed.

Typically benign tumors grow slowly and have the regular appearance of cells and their structures; this way, we can differentiate them from cancer or a malignant tumor since these generally increase and may metastasize (this occurs when cancer cells spread around the body).

Something particular that differentiates them is that malignant tumors may reappear after surgical removal due to irregular margins, thus invading and destroying the surrounding tissues.

Some examples of benign neoplasms:

  • Papaloma
  • Polyps
  • Meningioma.

Something important is that although they are benign, tumors can reach a state which will lead to death. For example, a meningioma that goes too large a size can compress the brain downwards, thus giving rise to convulsions and, finally, death; However, the meningioma can not spread around the body or invade the local tissue just by compressing any organ can cause death.


Examples of malignant tumors or cancer:

  • Lymphoma
  • Lung cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • And unfortunately, many more

Types of neoplasia

Benign neoplasms

Benign neoplasms are the non-cancerous forms of tissue proliferation in the skin, such as moles, lipomas, or uterine fibroids. Although these tumors are not cancerous, they can cause problems mainly by occupying space anywhere in the body.

Premalignant or precancerous

The precancerous growths are masses that have the potential to become cancerous tumors; the injury that occurs to the cancer is discovered as precancerous dysplasia. The cells proliferate only in their place of origin and do not spread to the rest of the body. However, dysplasia can reach a high degree and become carcinoma in situ, thus leading to an increased risk of cancer.

Malignant or cancerous

These terms are used to describe tumors that have become cancerous, defined by the following distinguishing features:

  • Abnormal cell growth
  • Ability to invade other tissues.
  • Ability to spread to distant organs through blood vessels or lymphatic channels (metastasis).
  • These cancers can take over the entire body and eventually lead to death.


The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of neoplasms:

  • Genetics.
  • Neoplasia invoice.
  • Hematogenous.
  • Idiopathic
  • Rayos UV.
  • X-rays.
  • Diet rich in red meat.
  • Smoke.
  • Alcohol.
  • Hormone replacement therapy has been used for more than five years.
  • Obesity.
  • Immune system.
  • Exposure to chemical substances.
  • Mutation.
  • Radiation exposure.
  • Virus oncogénicos.

Some of the less common causes of neoplasms may include:

  • Immune system
  • Exposure to chemical substances
  • Mutation