Cystadenoma: Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

It is an ovarian tumor of epithelial cells that is not naturally cancerous.

The tumor does not spread to other body parts, but it can grow to a good size. The growth of this tumor is very gradual, and in most cases, only one of the ovaries experiences this growth with a single mass.

However, the tumor may also be present in the ovary with multiple masses.

Ovarian benign mucinous cystadenoma occurs in women during their reproductive years, mainly in the early forties or postmenopausal periods. Although it is harmless, it can be dangerous if not treated as soon as possible.

Knowing the causes, symptoms, and treatment of benign mucinous ovarian cystadenoma will help us manage the condition better.

It is essential to know the symptoms and treatment of benign mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary. Other types, namely ovarian cystadenoma of serous and mixed variety, can also occur.

Causes of cystadenoma

As most of these tumors develop spontaneously, the exact cause of the ovary’s benign mucinous cystadenoma is unknown. However, studies reveal that specific genetic characteristics may play a role in developing this tumor, although it occurs in very few cases.


A benign ovarian mucinous cystadenoma can occur in women between 20 and 75 years, but it is more common in middle-aged women. The symptoms of benign mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary are varied in nature.

Although there are no specific risk factors, some studies reveal that women undergoing hormone replacement therapy or those who are obese have an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian cystadenoma of the ovary.

Symptoms of Cystadenoma

In most cases, the benign mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary may not show symptoms, mainly when it is present only in an ovary. When the benign mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary is bilateral or present in both ovaries, it can still be challenging to determine its presence.

However, as the tumor grows, the symptoms may be noticeable in some cases. The tumor measures around 5 centimeters in most women, but it can grow and vary in size from 10 to 15 centimeters in some.

As the tumor grows, the following symptoms develop and become visible.

Low abdominal pain is a common symptom of benign ovarian mucinous cystadenoma due to the growing tumor. The enlarged tumor size gives a swollen appearance in the abdominal area.

The colon begins to compress due to a large tumor that causes problems in bowel movement and can cause constipation.

The patient feels full even if he eats a minimal amount of food, affecting his intake. Decreased appetite is an essential symptom of the benign mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary.

Vomiting and nausea are other commonly associated symptoms of benign ovarian mucinous cystadenoma.

As the tumor grows more prominent, the abdominal fluid accumulates ( ascites), further increasing the abdominal size.

The abnormality in the menstrual cycle is observed in many cases and is a prominent symptom of benign ovarian mucinous cystadenoma. Some women also feel tired at all times.


There are several aspects involved in diagnosing a benign ovarian mucinous cystadenoma. A complete physical examination of the patient and medical history can explain ​​the problem.

Blood tests and X-ray scans may be ordered, as appropriate, to confirm the diagnosis.

Functional investigations to make a diagnosis of cystadenoma include:

  • Blood count.
  • Alpha fetus protein.
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin.
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
  • CA – 125.
  • Hormone inhibin test.
  • Test of testosterone and estrogen.
  • Ultrasound scan.
  • MRI and CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis.

A laparoscopic examination may be necessary if the biopsy is considered. For a biopsy, a tissue sample is taken during laparotomy and sent to the laboratory for detailed analysis. The biopsy results can help confirm the diagnosis of benign ovarian mucinous cystadenoma.

Treatment of cystadenoma

Treatment depends mainly on the size of the tumor and the associated symptoms. In cases where the cancer is small, the doctor does not recommend any therapy, mainly because the tumor is benign.

However, it is essential to monitor the condition to verify the tumor size growth or any symptoms’ appearance. Follow-up visits may also include an ultrasound or inhibin test to guarantee the same.

Symptomatic treatment can be given to relieve existing symptoms. Still, if they do not disappear and the size of the tumor continues to grow, surgical treatment of the benign mucinous ovarian cystadenoma may be necessary.

Surgical treatment of benign ovarian mucinous cystadenoma is suggested in cases where the tumor size is large enough to cause complications such as torsion or ovarian hemorrhage.

In addition, surgical treatment options may be considered if symptoms of benign ovarian mucinous cystadenoma are present and cause serious problems.

Surgery for benign ovarian mucinous cystadenoma mainly involves the surgical removal of the tumor. After the surgery, the patient is asked to rest, eat healthily and avoid strenuous physical activities.


The benign mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary is not a cancerous tumor and does not spread in the body.

However, doctors recommend surgically removing the tumor as part of treating benign mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary if it grows in size, leading to several complications or if the symptoms are severe and unbearable for the patient.

It is essential for people suffering from benign mucinous ovarian cystadenoma to control the condition and follow medical advice.

If there are any symptoms or the existing symptoms worsen, it is necessary to seek a medical opinion as soon as possible and verify if the tumor size is increasing. This can help receive timely treatment for benign mucinous ovarian cystadenoma and help prevent further complications.