Malignant Brain Tumors – Glioma: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

It is a type of malignant brain tumor. A malignant tumor is a mass of abnormal cancerous cells.

Tumors can develop anywhere in the brain, nerves, and the tissues that cover them. The two main types of brain tumors are primary and secondary.

Primary brain tumors begin in the brain. Secondary brain tumors start in another part of the body and then spread to the brain. A glioma is a primary brain tumor, accounting for 45% of cancers that originate in brain cells.

Causes

The causes of primary brain tumors are unknown. Some tumors tend to be hereditary; people who inherit these genes may be more likely to develop a brain tumor. In other cases, a person’s genes may change as they grow. Environmental factors such as food, radiation, or chemicals can cause changes in genes.

Secondary brain tumors are caused by tumors in other body areas that extend to the brain.

The symptoms and complications

A person with a brain tumor may experience various signs and symptoms of the disease. As cancer grows, it puts pressure on the brain and its tissues. This pressure can affect the way blood flows, as well as damage brain cells or cause inflammation of the brain.

The most common symptoms of a brain tumor include headaches and seizures. Other signs and symptoms, such as loss of speech or sight, are possible and depend on the location of cancer.

 

If the tumor is in the spinal cord, symptoms may include:

  • Chest pain due to a tumor located in the chest area. The pain may increase when coughing, sneezing or going to bed.
  • Erectile dysfunction.
  • Insensitivity to changes in temperature.
  • Loss of muscle control.
  • Loss of power in the sphincters.
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Pain in the arms, neck, back, or legs.
  • Weakness in the extremities of the body.

Diagnosis

Doctors use techniques or procedures to determine if a person has a brain tumor. First, a doctor performs a physical examination and reviews the person’s medical history. If a brain tumor is suspected, the person will probably be referred to a neurologist. Other tests may include:

  • Blood test.
  • Chest x-ray.
  • Computed tomography (if a tumor is present, the location will be shown).
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (not always done)
  • Electroencephalogram.
  • Tissue samples of cancer.

Treatment

The drugs

They are helpful in the treatment of Glioma. Just as antiepileptic drugs help reduce the risk of seizures, chemotherapy, which uses a combination of potent drugs, helps kill cancer cells.

Surgery

It is recommended in most cases to remove the tumor. The surgeon may decide to remove part or all of cancer depending on its location. If the tumor is in or near the base of the brain, surgery becomes more difficult.

Radiotherapy

It uses X-rays to destroy cancer cells in the tumor. Radiation therapy can damage healthy tissue around cancer, but doctors try to limit this damage as much as possible.