Normal Glycemia: What Does Glycemia Indicate? Low and High Levels, Diabetes, and How to Maintain a Normal Blood Sugar Level

Excess circulating glucose normally polymerizes in the liver and muscles as glycogen, which is hydrolyzed to glucose and released as needed.

Glycemia or glycemia indicates the amount of glucose in the blood , this sugar is a source of vital energy for our body.

Glucose is a simple sugar found in some foods, especially fruits, and an important source of energy in the blood and body fluids of animals.

Glucose, when ingested or produced by digestive hydrolysis of double sugars and starches, is absorbed into the blood from the intestines by a facilitated transport mechanism using carrier proteins.

Determining blood glucose levels is an important diagnostic test in diabetes and other disorders.

Blood sugar levels in the body depend on glucose introduced by food, hormonal regulation, and stores stored in the body for later use.

The balance in the concentration of glucose in the blood is entrusted to two hormones in the body:

  • Glucagon.
  • Insulin.

The glycemic index is the measure of the speed at which food eaten causes the level of glucose in the blood to rise.

The lower the glycemic index number, the less impact food has on blood sugar. For example, an index of 55 or less is low and good, 56 to 69 is medium, and 70 or more is high and unhealthy.

What is the normal level of glycemia or blood sugar?


A normal blood sugar level is between 72 mg / dL and 108 mg / dL (4 to 6 mmol / L) for a healthy person.

  • The blood glucose concentration of a healthy person in the morning on an empty stomach is between 68 mg / dL and 108 mg / dL (3.8 and 6.0 mmol / L).
  • Two hours after consuming carbohydrate-rich foods or beverages, the values ​​typically range between 120 and 140 mg / dL (6.7 and 7.8 mmol / L).


  • For children up to 6 years of age, the target blood sugar level before eating is between 100 mg / dL (5.5 mmol / L) and 180 mg / dL (10 mmol / L).
  • Before sleeping, the values ​​should be between 110 mg / dL (6.1 mmol / L) and 200 mg / dL (11.1 mmol / L).
  • For children 6 to 12 years of age, before eating, blood sugar levels should be between 90 mg / dL (5 mmol / L) and 180 mg / dL (10 mmol / L).
  • Before sleeping, the values ​​should be between 100 mg / dL (5.5 mmol / L) and 180 mg / dL (10 mmol / L).
  • Children ages 13-19 should expect readings similar to those of adults.

Blood sugar levels rise and fall throughout the day. This is normal. However, dramatic fluctuations in your blood glucose levels can indicate problems.

Dramatic changes in blood sugar levels have significant physical symptoms and will increase the risk of diabetes-related complications.

What is considered low blood sugar?

When your blood sugar drops below 70 mg / dL (3.9 mmol / L), this means you have low blood sugar.

Common symptoms of low blood sugar are:

  • Hungry.
  • Perspiration.
  • Restlessness.
  • Hesitant speech.
  • Confusion.
  • Temblor.
  • Difficulty in concentration.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Headache.
  • Visual disturbances

Symptoms can vary – different people may experience different symptoms. In some cases, symptoms may remain unrecognizable ( unconscious hypoglycemia ).

What is considered high blood sugar?

Chronically high blood sugar (diabetes) is caused by a number of abnormalities in the body, one of them being the affected vascular walls of the small and large arteries (diabetic micro- and macro-angiopathy) in a process called atherosclerosis.

We can say that the blood sugar level is high if we measure the glucose level and obtain the following values: more than 110 mg / dL (6.1 mmol / L) on an empty stomach or at any time more than 200 mg / dL (11.1 mmol) / L).

Measure blood sugar level

If your blood sugar level is high, you should immediately go to a doctor’s consultation. High blood sugar values ​​can indicate diabetes.

High blood sugar levels affect the arteries throughout the body, especially the organs that have the richest blood circulation

These are:

  • The heart.
  • Brain.
  • The kidneys.
  • The senses.
  • The nerves.
  • Other organs.

If high blood sugar is associated with disturbances in lipid (blood fat) metabolism, the abnormalities are more intense.

Diabetes is one of the risk factors for the main non-communicable diseases: cardiovascular (coronary) disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular diseases.

Symptoms of diabetes:

Typical symptoms of high blood sugar (diabetes) are thirst, frequent urination, and unexpected weight loss.

Sometimes a patient may also experience the following:

  • Vision problems.
  • Skin itch.
  • Fatigue.
  • Increased appetite
  • Skin infections
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Heavy dehydration.

The symptoms of type 1 diabetes are severe and last for a short time before the disease is diagnosed. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes appear slowly and are generally unrecognizable or almost non-existent.

How to maintain normal blood sugar level

Most of the habits that help us maintain normal, healthy blood sugar levels are pretty obvious and simple to do. However, some may surprise you as well, especially if you think it will be difficult to begin to better control your blood sugar.

Small changes to your diet, exercise routine, and sleep schedule can make a big difference when it comes to managing blood sugar.

Let’s look at some of the best ways to help you find the right path to reaching and maintaining normal blood sugar levels for life.

Eat a low-processed, anti-inflammatory diet

A healthy diet is key to controlling blood sugar and preventing or treating diabetes.

It’s not that you need to avoid consuming carbs or sugar when trying to maintain a normal blood sugar level, but rather that you need to balance them with protein / fat and focus on getting them from real, whole foods.

Eating a source of protein, fiber, and healthy fats with all of your meals can help stabilize your blood sugar, especially when you consume carbohydrates / sugar (such as starchy vegetables like potatoes, fruits, or whole grains).

These slow the absorption of sugar into your bloodstream, help control your appetite, and are also important for your metabolism and digestion.

Some of the best protein-rich foods for controlling blood sugar include:

  • Wild fish such as salmon.
  • Poultry eggs.
  • Grass-fed beef or lamb.
  • Raw dairy products (including yogurt, kefir, or raw cheeses).
  • Pasture-raised poultry.

Healthy fats include:

  • Virgin coconut oil.
  • MCT oil.
  • Extra virgin olive oil.
  • Nuts and seeds (such as almonds, chia, hemp, and flax).
  • Avocado.

High fiber foods include:

  • Fresh vegetables.
  • Whole pieces of fruit (not juice).
  • Sprouted beans or peas.
  • Ancient grains.
  • Artichokes
  • Green leafy vegetables.
  • Chia seeds.
  • Flax seeds.
  • Apples
  • Pumpkin seeds.
  • Almonds
  • Potatoes.

There are other foods and beverages that make great additions to a blood sugar stabilizing diet include apple cider vinegar, cinnamon, green tea, herbal teas, fresh herbs, and spices.

Swap out your carbohydrates and sweeteners

While all types of added sugars are capable of raising blood sugar levels, some sugar / carbohydrate sources affect blood glucose levels more than others.

When you use appropriate amounts in moderation, organic sugar sources (such as those from fruits or raw honey) are less likely to contribute to blood sugar mismanagement than refined sugars (such as white cane sugar or refined products made with white or bleached wheat flour).

To help maintain normal blood sugar, check ingredient labels carefully, as sugar can appear under dozens of different names.

Skip anything made with refined flour (also called wheat flour or “enriched flour”) and added sugars, such as beet sugar / beet juice, cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup, fructose, and dextrose.

Choose natural sweeteners like :

  • Raw honey.
  • Organic stevia.
  • Dates
  • Pure maple syrup.
  • Black molasses.

Most importantly, keep watching your portion sizes, using only a small amount per day of natural sweeteners (for example, one to three teaspoons per day).

When it comes to grain flour products, it is best to consume grains in their whole form whenever possible rather than in flour form, which tends to spike blood sugar more.

But if you must use flour, choose the ones made with 100 percent whole grains, or try coconut flour or almond flour for an even healthier option.

In terms of drinks, stick with water, seltzer, herbal or black tea, and coffee. Coffee is best in moderation, which means one to two cups a day, especially compared to sweetened beverages, juices, or sodas.

Be aware that alcohol can also raise blood sugar, especially if you consume sweetened alcoholic beverages (such as certain fortified / dessert wines, sherry, liqueurs, mixed drinks with juice, and ciders).

Get regular exercise

You probably already know that there are literally dozens of benefits associated with exercise. According to the National Diabetes Association, exercise manages blood sugar in more than one way.

Short-term exercise helps muscle cells take in more glucose to use for energy and tissue repair, thereby lowering blood sugar in the process.

Long-term exercise also makes cells respond better to insulin and helps prevent resistance.

Getting 30 to 60 minutes of exercise most days of the week (such as running, cycling, swimming, and lifting weights) is also a simple and beneficial way to reduce inflammation, manage stress, improve immunity, and balance the hormones.

Insulin sensitivity increases, so your cells can better use any available insulin to take in glucose during and after activity.

Manage stress

Excessive stress can actually cause blood sugar levels to rise due to increased release of the “stress hormone” cortisol. Stress starts a vicious hormonal cycle for many people.

Not only does it contribute to high blood sugar by increasing cortisol, it also tends to increase cravings for “comfort foods” (many of which are refined and packed with sugar or other inflammatory ingredients) and often interfere with good sleep.

In general, dealing with high amounts of stress makes people less likely to take good care of themselves and stick to healthy habits that contribute to normal blood sugar.

For example, skipping workouts and drinking more alcohol and caffeine are common among chronically stressed adults. These self-destructive habits further contribute to stress, further interfering with blood sugar management.

It is no wonder that people who develop health problems such as diabetes or heart disease, or even end up gaining a lot of weight and face obesity, tend to feel more depressed and hopeless, but find it difficult to break the cycle and develop new ones. habits.

In what ways can you help cope with the inevitable stresses that occur in life?

Studies have found that natural stress relievers, including exercise, yoga, meditation, and the use of anxiety-relieving essential oils (such as lavender, rose, and frankincense) are helpful for diabetics and those with resistance to stress. insulin.

Other ways to relax include spending more time outdoors, joining groups in your community, and connecting more with your family and friends.

Get enough rest

Being well rested is crucial to maintaining a healthy outlook on life, maintaining healthy habits, and even managing hormone levels.

According to some Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 35 percent of the sampled people reported getting less than the recommended seven to nine hours of sleep each night, increasing the risk of numerous health problems, including type 2 diabetes.

Lack of sleep can increase stress and appetite hormones (like cortisol and ghrelin, which make you hungry), making it difficult to skip over sugary snacks, refined grain products, and caffeine overdose.

Sleep and metabolic processes are linked in several key ways, and research shows that our natural circadian rhythms can trigger high blood glucose or increase the risk of diabetes when disturbed.

Too little sleep, poor quality sleep, or sleeping at the wrong time can affect insulin secretion even if you don’t change your diet.

Aim for seven to nine hours of sleep a night, ideally following a normal sleep / wake schedule, to balance hormones, control stress responses, and have enough energy to exercise and keep up.