Erosive Gastritis: Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors and Treatment

It is characterized by many inflamed lesions in the mucous lining of the stomach.

It can be a temporary or chronic condition that lasts for years.

Signs and symptoms of erosive gastritis

Chronic and erosive gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach characterized by multiple lesions in the mucous lining that causes symptoms similar to ulcers.

These symptoms can include:

  • A burning sensation and a feeling of heaviness in the pit of the stomach.
  • Mild nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Soft spot.

In severe cases, there may be stomach bleeding that can lead to anemia . Some people with this disorder, especially chronic aspirin users, may not show apparent symptoms until the disease has progressed.

An accurate diagnosis can be made by visually inspecting the doctor’s stomach with a gastroscope.

Causes of erosive gastritis

The exact cause of chronic and erosive gastritis is unknown. It can be the result of an infection, excessive alcohol consumption, or persistent use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen.

The stress tends to worsen symptoms. Crohn’s disease and sarcoidosis are known to be factors in some cases of chronic, erosive gastritis, while some cases have no apparent cause.

Risk factor’s

Chronic and erosive gastritis generally occurs during middle age and is more common in men than women. Alcoholics and chronic users of aspirin or ibuprofen (for example, people with arthritis) are more susceptible to this disorder.

Related disorders

The following disorders may have symptoms similar to chronic, erosive gastritis. Comparisons can be useful for a differential diagnosis:

Crohn’s disease

Also known as ileitis, regional enteritis, or granulomatous colitis, it is a form of inflammatory bowel disease characterized by severe chronic, often granulomatous, inflammation of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract.

In most cases, a segment of the intestines is called the ileum. Crohn’s disease can be difficult to manage. Mortality due to the disease itself, or complications of the disease, is low.

Peptic ulcer is a common disorder that is usually characterized by a single injury to the mucous membranes of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.

These lesions can be caused by excessive acid or pepsin secretion and are characterized by pain, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting.

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

It is a rare condition characterized by stomach ulcers and small tumors (usually of the pancreas) that secrete a hormone that produces excessive amounts of gastric juices in the stomach.

These tumors can also appear on the lower wall of the stomach, spleen, or lymph nodes near the stomach.

Large amounts of gastric acid can be found in the areas of the lower stomach where ulcers can form.

Ulcers can appear suddenly even in areas where they are rarely found, can persist after treatment, and can be accompanied by diarrhea.

Immediate medical treatment of these ulcers is necessary to prevent complications such as bleeding and perforation.

Erosive gastritis treatments

Because erosive and chronic gastritis can cause symptoms similar to other gastrointestinal disorders, a complete medical history must be known before an effective treatment can be determined.

Most cases are generally treated with acid-neutralizing medications (antacids) and H2-blocking medications such as Zantac (ranitidine) or Tagamet (cimetidine).

Diet changes and avoiding irritating causes, such as drugs that irritate the stomach or stressful situations, are also helpful in eliminating the symptoms of erosive and chronic gastritis.

The prostaglandin E1 analogue drug Cytotec (misoprostol) has been shown to be an effective preventative drug for gastric lesions associated with treatment with high doses of aspirin or ibuprofen.

This drug is effective in healing gastric mucosal lesions without altering the therapeutic benefits of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs administered to arthritis patients.

Misoprostol can have serious effects on a developing fetus and should be administered with extreme caution. Other treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

Research therapies

Currently, a study is being conducted on the efficacy of the drug bismuth-subsalicylate as a treatment for chronic, erosive gastritis. More research needs to be done to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of this drug.

Overview of erosive gastritis

  • Acute inflammatory process of the mucosa, usually transient (the normal stomach has only rare inflammatory cells).
  • Erosion: loss of superficial epithelium above the muscular mucosa, accompanied by hemorrhage.
  • Variable changes include acute inflammatory infiltrate, extrusion of fibrinopurulent exudate into the lumen, mucosal detachment, regenerative changes in nearby epithelium
  • Severe erosive disease can cause acute gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Associated with the intensive use of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin), excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, cancer chemotherapy, bile reflux, uremia, systemic infections (Salmonella), severe stress (trauma, burns, surgery), ischemia and shock, acid / alkali ingestion as part of suicide attempts, gastric irradiation or freezing, mechanical trauma (nasogastric tube), distal gastrectomy
  • Main cause of massive hematemesis in alcoholics.
  • It occurs in 25% taking aspirin daily for rheumatoid arthritis; 20% of these develop overt bleeding; It can be fatal by up to 5%.
  • Severe disease can progress to acute gastric ulcers.
  • Treatment with proton pump inhibitors reduces the severity of mucosal damage and facilitates healing.
  • Symptoms: none; in other cases there may be pain, nausea and vomiting.
  • Physiology: damage to the mucosa due to increased acid secretion with backward diffusion into the mucosa, decreased bicarbonate buffer, reduced blood flow, disruption of the mucosa.