It is an injury characterized by a rash of small spots of very red color, which is especially seen in the mucous membranes.
These vesicular lesions usually occur in the area of the mouth and pharynx.
Differences between exanthemas and enanthemias
A rash is a very diffuse and more or less extensive skin rash along the body’s surface.
While anathema is the skin rash that manifests on the surface of the mucous membranes that line the natural cavities, especially in the mouth and pharynx.
They are widespread manifestations of several infectious diseases caused by viruses; they are classified as exanthematic diseases.
Although they are not the only ones, the most common are measles, rubella, and chickenpox, which are very contagious and can be contracted during the first years of life.
Eruptive lesions can be caused by the viruses in the skin, mucous membranes, or by a reaction triggered by the body’s defenses.
However, the appearance of rash lesions varies according to the disease and its evolution time.
If in measles, the lesions consist of small spots (or macules), the lesions of rubella reveal more minor imperfections with a slight relief (or pimples).
While in varicella, although beginning to show macules, they are successively transformed into papules and then vesicles, consisting of a liquid that, when dry, causes the formation of scabs that end up falling.
In the eruptions in the mucous membranes, the most characteristic corresponds to the so-called Koplick spots, typical of measles, small lesions in the roof of the mouth with an appearance similar to canker sores.
The presence and characteristics of exanthemas and anathemas are significant for diagnosing an exanthematous disease.
However, the eruptions themselves do not usually cause severe repercussions for the patient’s health since, in most cases, they disappear spontaneously after a few days after they have manifested.
It usually occurs in diseases such as:
Subject exanthema: It is a viral disease characterized by high fever and rash. It is caused by a human herpesvirus 6; this condition has enanthem as erythematous papules located on the soft palate and uvula, also called Nagayama spots.
Measles: It is a viral disease of the infectious type that is commonly shown at the stage of childhood and adolescence. The enanthem that appears is known as Köplik’s spots; these will appear in the early stages of measles development.
Scarlet fever is an infectious, contagious bacterial type that usually occurs in people over three years.
The responsible bacterium is group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. The exanthemata occur at the buccal level, are very marked on the tongue, and are covered by a yellowish-white exudate. The tongue papillae protrude hyperemic and thicken and give a raspberry appearance to the language.
Chickenpox is a viral disease with acute infectious-contagious characteristics caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Injuries or enanthate appear in the mouth and usually in a small number.
The lesions begin as a small blister or cyst, which ruptures rapidly, causing a shallow ulcer with a yellowish-white background surrounding an erythematous halo.
Usually, these ulcers are not painful or asymptomatic, but this enanthem may present with painful erosions in the oropharynx, conjunctivae, or vaginal mucosae.
Pospischill Feyter disease occurs in infants and young children; it is a variant of the herpes simplex virus. The characteristic eruptions happen in the perioral area.
Kawasaki syndrome, also called mucocutaneous ganglion syndrome, is a vasculitis with fevers and exanthemas; it is multisystemic and epidemic. The enema presents the characteristics of afrabmbued language.
Herpes simplex: This presents two serotypes, HSV I, which causes oral lesions, and HSV 2, associated with genital infections, although both serotypes can induce buccogenital lesions.
The enema appears as a vesicular eruption in the oropharyngeal mucous membranes in the form of small clusters; a yellowish pseudomembrane may cover the lesions.
Escalating skin syndrome: It is also known as Ritter’s disease; it usually occurs in newborns or children under five years of age, which may affect older children and, in rare cases, adults. It presents enanthem or Nagayama spots, with erythematous papules on the soft palate and uvula.
Mononucleosis is an acute infectious disease that usually occurs in children, adolescents, and young people. The responsible agent is the Epstein-Barr virus; it penetrates the body and is found in the lymph nodes and tonsils.
The enema appears between day five and day 17 and is described as small petechial conglomerates with a 1 to 2 mm, at the edge of the soft and hard palate.
Rubella: It is produced by a single-stranded RNA virus, of the genus Rubivirus, of the family Togaviridae, consisting of a petechial or macular enema on the soft palate called the Forcheimer sign, which occurs during the prodromal phase or the first day of the eruption.
The treatment usually depends on the cause, but different treatments of oral type are used that are coadjuvants for this type of gingiva-periodontal lesions, such as, for example, 0.12% chlorhexidine rinses.
Mouthwashes are based on aluminum and magnesium hydroxide gels, applied three times daily.