Also called Cerebral Infarction.
Stroke is a decrease in the functions of the brain, more or less quickly, after a change in the blood circulation in it. It can be a blockage of a cerebral artery, a stroke or a transient decrease in blood flow. It is also known as Brain Ischemia
When the blood circulates badly, the brain cells are deprived of oxygen: the result is that in a few minutes the brain goes into asphyxia and can not continue guaranteeing its functions. If the interruption of the blood supply is short, there are chances of recovery; otherwise the consequences will be unavoidable and very serious.
Some strokes, strokes or cerebral infarcts come suddenly without premonitory symptoms. Others are preceded by transient symptoms.
The two types of symptoms vary depending on the artery compromised by the stroke. The motor and sensory problems caused by the stroke refer to the face, extremities and an entire half of the body.
Sensory problems are mainly related to vision. But behavior, speech, language and memory can also be affected.
-> Paralysis of the face and extremities.
-> Sensory Deprivation, especially of sight.
-> Difficulties in the cognitive area (of the conscience).
What are the causes of Cerebral Stroke?
The most common cause is atherosclerosis, a disease favored by several factors: smoking, diet too rich in fats, diabetes, high lipids in the blood, obesity, age, heart disease. But the main reason is high blood pressure not controlled by medications. In younger people, sometimes, the cause may be the rupture of an aneurysm, a malformation in the wall of an artery or the result of a head injury.
When is medical help needed?
The specialized physician should be consulted urgently, either in the presence of a severe form, or less severe symptoms.
What does the doctor do?
In severe forms, for example, coma, the doctor immediately checks the patient in the resuscitation division at the hospital. In other cases, it is necessary to admit the patient to perform all exams: cardiovascular , complete neurological and blood tests. Depending on the case, the doctor requests an electroencephalography, computerized tomography, cerebral arteriography, an electrocardiogram or Doppler examination of the cervical arteries. All this to identify the cause of the stroke and have the knowledge to be able to schedule the treatment.
What is the treatment for Stroke or Cerebral Infarction?
In the resuscitation phase, the treatment is urgent in: the control of blood pressure, the balance of coagulation; fight inflammation of the brain or loss of fluid from blood vessels. The following treatment can begin immediately after the tests have detected the stroke: a stroke caused by the rupture of an artery does not heal as the obstruction by a blood clot. The drugs are designed to improve the circulation of blood in the brain and nourish the cells of the brain.
In the presence of some of the causes, it is necessary to operate a rupture of an aneurysm, the presence of a hematoma due to trauma to the head or occlusion of a carotid artery. Stroke can have cardiac causes that require specific treatment. Rehabilitation should begin as soon as possible to improve functions that have deteriorated due to stroke: mobility, speech, etc.
What should the patient do?
In order to recover successfully the lost capacities to the maximum, it is necessary to participate in the rehabilitation with constancy and regularity, to face the discouragement and to accept the own disability. The support of friends and family is a great help to overcome this phase.
What is the evolution of the stroke?
Some strokes can be sudden. There are those who are serious from the start, with a deep coma and serious physical deficiencies. Others resolve spontaneously in a short time, but this should not reassure. In other cases, strokes are announced by a series of symptoms that indicate problems that have been neglected such as circulation or high blood pressure. It is difficult to predict the final degree of disability: this is something that depends on many factors, including the effectiveness of rehabilitation.
How to avoid it?
You should avoid all those factors that can promote atherosclerosis: first hypertension, also avoid smoking and excess cholesterol in the blood.